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환경생물 = Korean journal of environmental biology v.27 no.4, 2009년, pp.323 - 333   피인용횟수: 3

파라벤류의 독성과 내분비계장애 효과
Toxicity and Endocrine Disrupting Effect of Parabens

안혜선    (한양대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학과   ); 나원흠    (한양대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학과   ); 이재은    (한양대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학과   ); 오영석    (한양대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학과   ); 계명찬    (한양대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학과  );
  • 초록

    파라벤은 p-하이드록시 벤조산(p-hydroxybenzoic acid)의 알킬에스테르로, 비교적 빠르게 흡수, 대사 및 배설되는 살균성 보존제로 식품, 화장품, 약품 등에 널리 사용되고 있다. 실제 인체는 파라벤 복합물에 노출된다. 파라벤의 안전성에 관한 연구결과들에 대한 고찰 결과 파라벤 종류에 따라 다양한 독성종말점을 대상으로 파라벤의 급성, 아급성 및 만성독성 영향은 비교적 적은 것으로 나타났다. 파라벤은 에스트로젠 유사활성을 가지며 화장품을 통한 경피흡수를 통해 유방암과의 상관성이 보고되었으나, 이와 상반된 견해도 있다. 파라벤의 항안드로젠성은 남성생식기계의 장애를 유발할 수 있으나 이와 상반된 견해도 있다. 파라벤은 정자의 미토콘드리아 기능 및 남성호르몬 생성을 저해할 수 있으나 이와 상반된 견해도 있다. 배아발달에는 독성이 없는 것으로 나타났다. 세포독성으로는 세포용혈, 미토콘드리아 막투과성 변화, 세포사멸 등을 유발할 수 있다. 수환경에서 파라벤은 환경에스트로젠으로 작동하여 어류에서 내분비장애 효과를 발휘한다. 결론적으로 파라벤은 저독성물질로 분류할 수 있으나, 인체 및 수생동물들에서 파라벤의 노출경로 및 농도, 사용기간 등에 따른 독성과 내분비계장애 효과에 대하여는 다양한 종말점을 대상으로 좀 더 구체적인 독성자료들이 요구된다.


    Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, which are widely used in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutic products as preservatives. Absorbed parabens are metabolized fastly and excreted. Actually human body is exposed to complex mixture of parabens. Safety assessment at various toxicological end points revealed parabens have a little acute, subacute and chronic toxicities. Some reports have argued that as parabens have estrogenic activity, they are associated with the incidence of breast cancer through dermal absorption by cosmetics. There is an inference that antiandrogenic activity of parabens may give rise to a lesion of male reproductive system, but also there is an contrary. At cellular level, parabens may inhibit mitochondrial function of sperms and androgen production in testis, but also there is an contrary. Parabens seem to have little or no toxicity in embryonic development. Parabens can cause hemolysis, membrane permeability change in mitochondria and apoptosis, suggesting cellular toxicity of parabens. Parabens evoked endocrine disruption in several fish species and have toxic effect on small invertebrates and microbes. Therefore, the toxicity of parabens should be considered as a potentially toxic chemical in the freshwater environment. In conclusion, though parabens may be considered as a low toxic chemical, more definite data are required concerning the endocrine disrupting effect of parabens on human body and aquatic animals according to route and term of exposure as well as the residual concentration of parabens.


  • 주제어

    parabens .   toxicity .   endocrine disrupting effect.  

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