Evaluation of Certain Plant Extracts and Antagonists Against Fusarium solani and Alternaria tenuissima, the Incitants of Root Rot and Die-Back Diseases of Mulberry
The studies have been conducted to control the soil borne fungal pathogens viz, Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc. and Alternaria tenuissima the incitants of root rot and die-back diseases on mulberry stem cuttings planted in the mulberry nurseries and also in established mulberry gardens ten plant extracts with 10% concentration except Lantana camara (undiluted) were tested through poisoned food technique and four biofungicides were also screened by dual culture method under in vitro conditions. Plant extract of Prosopis juliflora showed the maximum inhibition on the mycelial growth (81.2% over A. tenuissima and 80.0% over F. solani) and followed by L. camara (66.7% over A. tenuissima and 68.9% over F. solani). Among the antagonists Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma viride showed maximum inhibition on the mycelial growth of both pathogenic fungi. The promising plant extracts (P. juliflora and L. camara) and antagonists (P. fluorescens and T. viride) were tested against both the pathogenic fungi under in vivo conditions along with the existing popular chemical Mancozeb. All the tested plant products and bio-fungicides showed inhibitory effect on both fungi. But the maximum survival percentage of mulberry cuttings was recorded in the treatment with T. viride (95% against F. solani and 90% against A. tenuisssima) followed by P. fluorescens (90% against both fungi) and T. harzianum (80% against F. solani and 85% against A. tenuisssima). Incase of the treatments with plant extracts and chemical fungicide the P. juliflora (60% against F. solani and 55% against A. tenuisssima) showed higher survival percentage and followed by L. camara (55% against F. solani and 50% against A. tenuisssima) and Mancozeb (55% against both fungi). In case of control only 10% of survival was recorded in F. solani inoculated cuttings and 15% survival in A. tenuissima inoculated cuttings.
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