Overexpression of PgSQS1 Increases Ginsenoside Production and Negatively Affects Ginseng Growth Rate in Panax ginseng
The medicinal plant Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) contains various phytosterols and bioactive triterpene saponins (ginsenosides). Squalene synthase catalyzes the first committed step in ginsenoside biosynthesis. Transgenic plants of P. ginseng were generated by introducing the squalene synthase gene derived from P. ginseng. Adventitious roots of the transgenic ginseng grew best in B5 medium, and 2 g of inoculum secured an optimal growth rate. Two phytohormones, indolebutyric acid and 1-naphtalene acetic acid, increased root growth and decreased ginsenoside production. Treatment with two selected elicitors, chitosan and jasmonic acid, and a precursor of the isoprenoid pathway, mevalonic acid, enhanced ginsenoside production and retarded ginseng growth rate.
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