기후완화와 적용의 장소로서의 도시 - 미국 오레건주 포트랜드시 사례연구 -
Cities as Place for Climate Mitigation and Adaptation: A Case Study of Portland, Oregon, USA
도시는 적극적으로 온실가스배출을 저감하고 기후변화에 대한 적응전략을 구현할 수 있는 적합한 장소이다. 기존의 도시 기후변화 완화와 적응의 계획, 정책, 이행에 관한 연구를 지속가능성 과학, 세계변화 과학, 다차원 거버넌스, 구조공학의 네가지 범주로 나누어 고찰하였다. 이 네가지 학문은 관점이 서로 다르지만 모두 기후변화로 인해 야기될 수 있는 위협을 극복하는데 보편적인 주제를 공유하고 있다. 포트랜드 시의 사례연구는 도시가 현명한 성장, 국지적인 기후대응 계획, 다차원 규모의 거버넌스, 녹생성장에 기여하는 그린 인프라구조의 설치등을 통해 온실가스를 저감하고 기후변화에 능동적으로 대응할 수 있음을 제시한다. 더욱이 도시에 위치한 대학은 민간과공공부문의 다양한 조직을 연결하고, 혁신적인 연구센터와 공간적으로 명확한 그린 인프라스트럭처를 창출하며, 영향평가 방법과 캠퍼스 탄소 인벤토리를 구축하며 서비스 학습을 통해 학생과 커뮤니티를 연결하여 이러한 기후변화의 완화와 대응의 허브로서 작용할 수 있다.
Cities are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions but also suitable places for implementing proactive climate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Based on the interdisciplinary review of literature, we categorize the current discussion about urban climate mitigation and adaptation planning, policy and practices into four perspectives - sustainability science, global change science, multilevel governance, and structural engineering. While these four schools of thought have distinct perspectives rooted in different disciplinary lenses, our synthesis of the literature identifies several universal themes that are common to all of the perspectives in the context of combating threats posed by climate change. The Portland case study illustrates that a city can make changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase adaptive capacity to climate change impacts by implementing smart growth, devising local climate action plans that target emission reductions in various sectors, recognizing the interactions and influences of multiple scales of governance, and supporting the installation of various green infrastructures that contribute to green economy. Furthermore, a university can serve as a hub in this climate mitigation and adaptation arena by connecting various levels of community organizations in both public and private sectors, creating innovative research centers and spatially explicit green infrastructure, designing impact assessments and campus carbon inventories, and engaging students and the larger community through service learning.
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