조사료의 곰팡이 발생과 곰팡이독소 오염
Mold Growth and Mycotoxin Contamination of Forages
In order to ensure good animal health and performance, it is essential to produce forages with high feeding value and good hygienic quality. However, huge amounts of forages consumed by ruminants are contaminated with mold prior to harvest or during storage as hay, straw or silage. These mold can grow in forages only when nutrients are available, correct temperature exist, oxygen is present, and unbound water is available. Fungal 'species can be divided into two groups: field fungi and storage fungi. Field fungi invade the forages while the crop is still in the field, require high moisture conditions, and are such as species of Fusarium, Alternaria, Clodosporium, Diplodia, Gibberrella and Helminthosporium. Storage fungi invade forages during storage and need less moisture than field fungi. These such as species of Aspergillus and Penicillium usually do not occur any problem before harvest. Mold growth can spoil the nutritional aspects of the forages and also results in secondary metabolites that are highly toxic to animal, humans and plants. Moldy feeds are less palatable and may reduce dry matter intake. This, in turn, leads to a reduction of nutrition intake, reducing weight gains or milk production. Performance losses of 5 to 10 percent are typical with moldy feeds. Mycotoxins are toxic substances produced by fungi (molds) growing on crops in the field or storages. While greater than 400 mycotoxins have been chemically identified, the biological or veterinary medical impact of only several mycotoxins is known. Mycotoxins have attracted considerable attention as potential causes for poor performance and health disorders in domestic livestock. They can be carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, hematotoxic, immunosuppressive, estrogenic, or mutagenic. So, feeding moldy forages has adverse effects on animal health and milk consumers. Also, this author reported that rice straw hay was contaminated mycotoxigenic fungi such as Penicillium roqueforti and Fusarium culmorum in Korea. Therefore, it is an urgent need to develop an improved post harvest storage method to reduce nutrient loss and mycotoxin contamination of forages, which will have a positive impact on human health.
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이 논문을 인용한 문헌 (3)
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