Biological and Structural Mechanisms of Disease Development and Resistance in Chili Pepper Infected with the Root-knot Nematode
Biological and structural mechanisms of the nematode disease development in chili pepper caused by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, were investigated. Out of 39 chili pepper cultivars/lines tested, six were found resistant, while 33 were susceptible to M. incognita, of which a susceptible cultivar Chilseongcho and three resistant cultivar/lines CM334, 02G132 and 03G53 with different resistance degrees were selected for microscopic studies on the disease development. Gall formation was greatly reduced in the resistant cultivars/lines. Nematode penetration occurred both in the susceptible and resistant chili pepper roots; however, the penetration rates were significantly lowered in the three resistant peppers compared to the susceptible pepper cv. Chilseongcho. In the susceptible pepper, giant cells were extensively formed with no discernible necrosis around the nematode feeding sites. In the highly resistant pepper cultivar CM334, no giant cell was formed, but extensive necrosis formation was observed around the penetrating nematodes. In the other two resistant pepper lines (02G132 and 03G53), both giant cells and prominent necroses were formed, and the necrotic responses appeared to inhibit the further development of giant cells or accelerate their early degeneration. Although the nematode penetration was retarded significantly in the resistant cultivar/lines, all of the above results suggest that the disease resistance of pepper may be related to post-infectional defense mechanisms (nematode growth and development) more than pre-infectional ones (penetration and establishment). Variations in structural modifications in the resistant cultivar/lines may reflect their genetic differences related to the nematode resistance.
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