Absorption, Translocation, and Remobilization of Cadmium Supplied at Different Growth Stages of Rice
Cadmium (Cd) is absorbed by rice root and transferred into the other rice organs including grain. A solution-culture experiment was conducted to investigate the absorption and distribution of Cd supplied at different growth stages of rice. Two rice cultivars, a japonica 'Chucheong' and a tongil-type 'Milyang23' that exhibit high and low ability of Cd absorption by root and accumulation in grain were grown in culture solution and subjected to 2 ppm $CdCl^2$ treatment for 2 weeks at four different growth stages: before panicle initiation stage (BPI), after panicle initiation stage (API), early ripening stage (ER), and mid-ripening stage (MR). Cd concentration and accumulation in rice organs were measured at harvest. The two rice cultivars accumulated two to three times greater amounts of Cd in grain in the two Cd treatments before heading (BPI and API treatments) than in the Cd treatment after heading (ER and MR treatment). The higher grain Cd accumulation in BPI and API treatments was not attributed to the higher Cd uptake but to the higher translocation from root to shoot and the higher redistribution from shoot to grain than ER and MR treatments These results imply that the remobilization of Cd through phloem during leaf senescence is the major process for Cd accumulation in rice grain rather than direct transport of absorbed Cd through the xylem-phloem transfer to grain. 'Milyang23' absorbed significantly smaller amount of Cd than 'Chucheong'. However, 'Milyang23' accumulated more than a three times larger amount of Cd in grain compared to 'Chucheong' as the former exhibited the higher root-shoot translocation and shoot-grain remobilization as well. It indicates that the greater Cd translocation from root to shoot and subsequent higher Cd remobilization from shoot to grain, not the higher absorption ability, have led to the higher Cd accumulation and concentration in grain of 'Milyang23'.
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