Detecting Nonculturable Bacteria in the Active Mycorrhizal Zone of the Pine Mushroom Tricholoma matsutake
The fungus Tricholoma matsutake forms an ectomycorrhizal relationship with pine trees. Its sporocarps often develop in a circle, which is commonly known as a fairy ring. The fungus produces a solid, compact, white aggregate of mycelia and mycorrhizae beneath the fairy ring, which in Japanese is called a 'shiro'. In the present study, we used soil dilution plating and molecular techniques to analyze the bacterial communities within, beneath, and outside the T. matsutake fairy ring. Soil dilution plating confirmed previous reports that bacteria and actinomycetes are seldom present in the soil of the active mycorrhizal zone of the T. matsutake shiro. In addition, the results showed that the absence of bacteria was strongly correlated with the presence of T. matsutake mycorrhizae. The results demonstrate that bacteria, especially aerobic and heterotrophic forms, and actinomycetes, are strongly inhibited by T. matsutake. Indeed, neither bacteria nor actinomycetes were detected in 11.3% of 213 soil samples from the entire shiro area by culture-dependent methods. However, molecular techniques demonstrated that some bacteria, such as individual genera of Sphingomonas and Acidobacterium, were present in the active mycorrhizal zone, even though they were not detected in soil assays using the dilution plating technique.
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