Partially Distributed Dynamic Model for Secure and Reliable Routing in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes communicating in an infrastructure-less environment without the aid of a central administrating authority. Such networks entail greater dependency on synergy amongst the nodes to execute fundamental network operations. The scarcity of resources makes it economically logical for nodes to misbehave to preserve their resources which makes secure routing difficult to achieve. To ensure secure routing a mechanism is required to discourage misbehavior and maintain the synergy in the network. The proposed scheme employs a partially distributed dynamic model at each node for enhancing the security of the network. Supplementary information regarding misbehavior in the network is partially distributed among the nodes during route establishment which is used as a cautionary measure to ensure secure routing. The proposed scheme contemplates the real world scenario where a node may exhibit different kinds of misbehavior at different times. Thus, it provides a dynamic decision making procedure to deal with nodes exhibiting varying misbehaviors in accordance to their severity. Simulations conducted to evaluate the performance of the model demonstrate its effectiveness in dealing with misbehaving nodes.
- A. Konig, D. Seither, R. Steinmetz, and M. Hollick, "An analytical model of routing, misbehavior and countermeasures in mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Nov.-Dec. 2009, pp. 1-6.
- R. Nath, P. K. Sehgal, and A.K. Sethi "Effect of routing misbehavior in mobile ad hoc network," in Proc. IEEE IACC, Feb. 2010, pp. 218-222.
- A. Visconti and H. Tahayori, "Detecting misbehaving nodes in MANET with an artificial immune system based on type-2 fuzzy sets," in Proc. IEEE ICITST, Nov. 2009, pp. 1-2.
- V. N. Patil and S. A. Thorat, "Cross layer approach to detect malicious node in MANET," in Proc. IEEE ICCCNT, July 2013, pp. 1-6.
- C. Shi-Hong, L. Chi-Chun, and H. Chun-Chieh, "Mitigating routing misbehavior in dynamic source routing protocol using trust-based reputation mechanism for wireless ad-hoc networks," in Proc. IEEE ICCNC, Jan. 2011, pp. 442-446.
- S. Usha and S. Radha, "Co-operative approach to detect misbehaving nodes in MANET using multi-hop acknowledgement scheme," in Proc. ICACCTT, Dec. 2009, pp. 576-578.
- S. N. Pari and D. Sridharan, "Mitigating routing misbehavior in self organizing mobile ad hoc network using K-neighbourhood local reputation system," in Proc. IEEE ICRTIT, June 2008, pp. 313-317.
- T. Elissa, S. A. Razak, R. H. Khokhar, and N. Samian, "Trust-based routing mechanism in MANET: Design and implementation," Mobile Netw. Appl., vol. 18, no. 5 pp. 666-677, Oct. 2013.
- X.Mao and J.McNair, "Effect of on/off misbehavior on overhearing based cooperation scheme for MANET," in Proc. IEEE MILCOM, Oct.-Nov. 2010, pp. 1086-1091.
- L. Buttyan and J. P. Hubaux, "Enforcing service availability in mobile adhoc WANs," in Proc. ACM MOBICOM, Nov. 2000, pp. 87-96.
- S. Zhong, J. Chen, and Y. R. Yang, "Sprite: A simple, cheat-proof credit-based system for mobile ad-hoc networks," in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar.-Apr. 2003, pp. 1987-1997.
- L. Buttyan and J. P. Hubaux, "Stimulating cooperation in self-organizing ad hoc networks," Mobile Netw. Appl., vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 579-592, Oct. 2008.
- H. Janzadeh, K. Fayazbaksh, M. Dehghan, and M. S. Fallah, "A secure credit-based cooperation stimulating mechanism for MANETs using hash chains," Future Gen. Comp. Syst., vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 926-934, Sept. 2009.
- S. Bansal and M. Baker, "Observation-based cooperation enforcement in ad hoc networks," Tech. Rep., Stanford University, June 2003.
- J. Hu and M. Burmester, "LARS: A locally aware reputation system for mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. ACM-SE, Mar. 2006, pp. 119-123.
- S. Buchegger and J. Y. Le Boudec, "Performance analysis of the CONFIDANT protocol," in Proc. MobiHoc, June 2002, pp. 226-236.
- P.Michiardi and R.Molva, "CORE: A collaborative reputation mechanism to enforce node cooperation in mobile ad-hoc networks," in Advanced Communications and Multimedia Security, US: Springer, 2002, pp. 107-121.
- J. N. Al-Karaki and A. E. Kamal, "Stimulating node cooperation in mobile ad hoc networks," Wireless Pers. Commun., vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 219-239, Jan. 2008.
- K. Gopalakrishnan and R. Uthariaraj, "Local monitoring based reputation system with alert to mitigate the misbehaving nodes in mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. ICT, Sept. 2010, pp. 344-349.
- M. T. Refaei, L. A. DaSilva, M. Eltoweissy, and T. Nadeem, "Adaptation of reputation management systems to dynamic network conditions in ad hoc networks," IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 59, no. 5 pp. 707-719, Feb. 2010.
- T. Chen, F. Wu, and S. Zhong, "FITS: A finite-time reputation system for cooperation in wireless ad hoc networks," IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 60, no. 7 pp. 1045-1056, July 2011.
- S. Noorian, M. Noorian, M. Fleming, and S. Marsh, "A strategic reputation-based mechanism for mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. CCAI, May 2012, pp. 145-157.
- X. Gu, P. Lin, and S. Shi, "A novel reputation model based on subjective logic for mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. ICTCS, pp. 525-532.
- T. Changgeng, C. Songqiao, and L. Wenyan, "An optimal local reputation system in mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. IEEE ICYCS, Nov. 2008, pp. 588-593.
- S. JianHua and M. ChuanXiang, "A reputation-based scheme against malicious packet dropping for mobile ad hoc networks," in Proc. IEEE ICICIS, Nov. 2009, pp. 113-117.
- R. Talreja and V. Jethani, "A vote based system to detect misbehaving nodes in MANETs," in Proc. IEEE IACC, Feb. 2014, pp. 391-394.
- T. Issariyakul and E. Hossain, Introduction to network simulator NS2, 2nd ed. USA: Springer, 2009.
- D. Goldschlag, M. Reed, and P. Syverson, "Onion routing", Commun. ACM, vol. 42, no. 2 pp. 39-41, Feb. 1999.
- R. Dingledine, N. Mathewson, and P. Syverson, "Tor: The second-generation onion router" in Proc. USENIX Security, 2004, pp. 21-21.