Mitochondrial free radical production induces lipid peroxidation during myohemoglobinuria.
Iron catalyzed free radical formation and lipid peroxidation are accepted mechanisms of heme protein-induced acute renal failure. However, the source(s) of those free radicals which trigger lipid peroxidation in proximal tubular cells remains unknown. This study tested the potential involvement of mitochondrial electron transport, xanthine oxidase activity, and arachidonic acid metabolism in the heme-induced peroxidative state. The impact of cytosolic Ca2+ loading also was assessed. Rhabdomyolysis was induced in mice by glycerol injection, and two hours later heme-laden proximal tubular segments (PTS) were isolated for study. PTS from normal mice served as controls. During 30 to 60 minute incubations, heme loaded PTS developed progressive cytotoxicity (LDH release) and iron-dependent lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA, generation; inhibited by deferoxamine). Site 2 (antimycin A) or site 3 (cyanide, hypoxia) mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition completely blocked lipid peroxidation, whereas site 1 inhibition (rotenone) doubled its extent (presumably by shunting NADH through NADH dehydrogenase, a free radical generating system). Conversely, these agents did not substantially alter MDA in normal PTS. Normal and heme loaded PTS developed comparable degrees of LDH release during respiratory blockade irrespective of increased or decreased MDA production (indicating that lipid peroxidation was not a critical determinant of cell death). Neither increasing free arachidonic acid (PLA2 treatment) nor adding cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase/cytochrome p450 inhibitors conferred a consistent protective effect. Altering free Ca2+ status (chelators; ionophore addition) and xanthine oxidase inhibition had no discernible impacts. Despite mitochondrial free radical production, mitochondrial function, as assessed by the ATP/ADP ratio, seemingly remained intact. In conclusion, (1) the terminal mitochondrial respiratory chain is the dominant source of free radicals which trigger PTS lipid peroxidation; (2) iron is a required secondary factor; (3) although mitochondria fuel lipid peroxidation, they do not appear to be critical targets of the heme-induced oxidant attack.
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