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Journal of comparative neurology v.368 no.4, 1996년, pp.620 - 630  

Standard atlas of the gross anatomy of the developing inner ear of the chicken.

Bissonnette, J P Fekete, D M
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    During development, the chicken inner ear undergoes a series of morphological changes which give rise to the various structures found in the adult, including the mature semicircular canals, utricle, saccule, cochlear duct, endolymphatic duct and sac, and neurons of the eighth cranial nerve ganglion. Beginning as a hollow epithelial sphere, the inner ear is sculpted into this complex labyrinth of fluid-filled ducts punctuated by their associated sensory end organs. In this report, the three-dimensional complexity of the developing inner ear of the chicken embryo is documented in the form of a standard atlas. The protocol involved fixation, dehydration, and clearing of embryonic heads harvested at daily intervals, followed by injection of an opaque dye (enamel paint suspension) into the fluid ducts of the inner ear. The position of the ear is shown relative to surface landmarks at seven different stages of development, ranging from embryonic day 5 (E5) to E18. Also shown are higher-power photomicrographs of the inner ear in isolation taken at daily intervals at E3-E17 and viewed from two orthogonal positions. Three orthogonal views are shown at 6-hour intervals during the critical stages of semicircular canal formation (E6-E7). Quantitative measurements of the linear dimensions of the inner ear (dorsoventral, anteroposterior, and mediolateral axes) as a function of time indicate a linear increase in the growth of the ear from E3 through E18. This atlas should prove valuable for evaluating mutant phenotypes in inner ear morphogenesis following gene perturbation experiments in the chicken.


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