Laparoscopic transgastric suturing for bleeding peptic ulcers
Abstract Background: Peptic ulcers are a frequent cause of upper G.I. bleeding. Since endoscopic methods may be unsuccessful, we have studied the feasibility of a new laparoscopic approach on a porcine model to control the bleeding of these ulcers with transgastric suturing. Methods: After approval of the Animal Ethics Committee, 20 pigs (20 kg) were anticoagulated with intravenous sodium heparin (400 U/kg), and anesthetized. A nasogastric tube was inserted and a 15 mmHg pneumoperitoneum was created. Two 10-mm trocars and one 5-mm trocar were inserted through the abdominal cavity for laparoscopic guidance of three 7-mm endoluminal trocars inside the stomach through the anterior wall. Two posterior gastric ulcers were mechanically made on each pig by a “lift and cut technique.” Ulcers were observed for at least 1 min for evidence of continued bleeding. First, bleeding ulcers were treated with sclerosing agents (epinephrine and ethanolmine oleate 5%); following sclerotherapy, ulcers were sutured intraluminaly with 2-0 silk, with intracorporeal knots. Results: Ulcers created extended into the vascular submucosa and averaged 7 mm in diameter. Bleeding rate was variable, but significant (2 cm 3 /min) in 40%. It was technically possible to suture these ulcers in 80%. Bleeding was controlled in 95% of cases with sclerotherapy and intraluminal sutures. One perforation of the posterior gastric wall occurred and four endoluminal trocars had to be reinserted after dislodgement. Conclusions: It is possible to technically control bleeding ulcers in most cases with a laparoscopic transgastric technique using sclerosing agent and intraluminal sutures. This approach is promising for future human application; also, the intragastric suturing skills developed may be useful for other surgical interventions.
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