The management of hypertension in diabetes: with special reference to diabetic kidney disease.
Hypertension is both an exacerbating factor for, and a consequence of, diabetic renal disease. In diabetic patients, hypertension is associated with increased total body sodium secondary to impaired renal excretion, and increased vascular reactivity, notably to catecholamines and angiotensin II. The mechanisms causing these changes are discussed. Control of hypertension will slow the progression of diabetic renal disease and the inexorable decline in GFR. A number of studies now suggest that in proteinuric IDDM and NIDDM patients angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) may have additional reno-protective effects in addition to their hypotensive action. In addition ACE-I will reduce proteinuria and delay the onset of diabetic nephropathy in normotensive microalbuminuric IDDM and NIDDM patients. Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring indicates that such patients may not be truly 'normotensive'. On-going studies seem to suggest that the most reno-protective blood pressure is the lowest one achievable, as long as the patient remains asymptomatic. Further studies are required to assess the impact of blood pressure control, and especially ACE-I, on the incidence of end-stage renal failure. In addition, more direct comparisons between different pharmacological agents in early diabetic renal disease would be useful.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199605)13:5<401::AID-DIA94>3.0.CO;2-9
- Blackwell Publishing_STM : 저널 > 논문
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