Prognostic significance of intrarenal resistance indices in patients with renal artery interventions: a preliminary duplex sonographic study
Abstract No non-invasive test can predict the clinical outcome of renal revascularization procedures. Because duplex sonographic measurements of intrarenal flow patterns reflect the resistance to flow within the kidney, the prognostic value of the cortical end-diastolic to peak systolic (d/s) velocity ratio was investigated in patients undergoing intervention for renal artery stenosis. The clinical and duplex sonographic data on 32 patients with 35 interventions (30 percutaneous transluminal angioplasties and five operations) on 42 renal artery sides were analysed. Twenty-three patients had atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis and nine patients had fibromuscular dysplasia resulting in ≥60% renal artery stenosis. Measurements of the renal to aortic velocity ratio and cortical d/s ratio were performed before and after intervention. In the atherosclerotic patients, three interventions were clinically and technically successful, eight were technically successful but clinical failures, and 14 were clinically and technically unsuccessful. In the fibromuscular dysplasia patients, eight interventions were clinically and technically successful, and two were clinically and technically unsuccessful. The difference between the corresponding d/s ratios for atherosclerotic and fibromuscular dysplasia sides was significant on both the treated and not-treated sides ( P < 0.02, two-tailed unpaired t -test). None of the 11 clinically successful procedures had a d/s ratio below 0.3, compared with seven values below 0.3 in the 24 clinically unsuccessful interventions ( P = 0.05, one-tailed Fisher's exact test). It is concluded that: (1), a d/s ratio below 0.3 correlates with clinical failure in subsequent treatment of hypertension by renal revascularization, while a value above 0.3 has no prognostic significance; (2), despite technical success, not all atherosclerotic patients have clinical success from renal artery interventions; (3), in fibromuscular dysplasia patients, all clinical failures of renal artery interventions are associated with technical failures; and (4), the difference in d/s ratio between atherosclerotic and fibromuscular dysplasia patients may be a consequence of the more advanced age, longer duration of hypertension and additional risk factors in atherosclerotic patients.
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