Apoptosis of larval cells during amphibian metamorphosis.
Programmed cell death occurs in a variety of organs during amphibian metamorphosis and is usually identified by electron microscopy as apoptosis or its modifications. Because of the massive cell death that occurs during a short period, amphibian organs serve as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying programmed cell death. In this article, a series of morphological changes in apoptosis from their nuclear changes to removal by phagocytic macrophages is reviewed, mainly in the small intestine of metamorphosing Xenopus laevis tadpoles. It is well known that cell death during amphibian metamorphosis is under the control of thyroid hormone (TH), and changes in gene expression induced by TH have been recently analyzed in a few Xenopus organs. On the other hand, there is a growing body of evidence that cell death is regulated by various kinds of local factors. For example, roles of interactions with other tissue cells and/or participation of immunocompetent cells in cell death have been experimentally shown. Therefore, to clarify the mechanisms of this complicated process, it is important at present that TH-induced changes in gene expression of each cell type comprising the organ are chronologically examined by combining morphological and molecular biological techniques.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0029(19960615)34:3<228::AID-JEMT5>3.0.CO;2-L
- John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. : 저널
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