Use of the 2,3-diacyl-trehalose and the purified protein derivative in the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis in AIDS.
The effect of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on IgG production against purified protein derivative (PPD) and 2,3-diacil-trehalose (SL-IV) was investigated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Comparison between the antigens showed that immunocompetent patients produce preferentially antibodies to SL-IV than to PPD (73.3% versus 63.3%). Combination of these results showed an increase of the sensitivity to 80%, which decreased over the spectrum of immunodepression caused by HIV. In the tuberculous HIV seropositive group the sensitivities of SL-IV and PPD were 36.4% versus 40% and 0% versus 22.2% in the tuberculosis/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (TB/AIDS) group. Combination of these results gave respectively 54.5% and 20%, showing that serological tests have limited value for diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients. High antibody levels were observed in HIV seropositive asymptomatic group, but only two individuals were positive for both antigens. In the follow up, one of them developed tuberculous lymphadenitis, indicating that further work is needed to access the value of serological tests in predicting tuberculosis in HIV infected individuals.
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