Immuno-epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infections in a recently exposed community in Senegal.
Schistosoma mansoni was introduced in the Senegal basin around 1988, due to man-made ecological changes. Since 1991, we investigate a recent but very intense focus, Ndombo, a village near the city of Richard Toll where the outbreak was first described. Four cohorts, each a random sample (+/- 400 subjects each) from this community, were examined and followed up after treatment, starting at 8 month intervals over a 2-year period. Each cohort is examined parasitologically (Kato-Katz), clinically, serologically (circulating antigen and antibody profiles); treated with praziquantel 40 mg/kg; followed up 6-10 weeks, one and two years after treatment; and monitored for water contact patterns and local snail densities. In the first cohort, the prevalence was 91%, with a mean egg count of 663 epg. Prevalences are near 100% in all age groups, but egg counts decline strongly in adults. Antigen detection in serum and urine confirmed that the egg counts genuinely reflect variations of worm burdens, not e.g. of worm fecundity. This is surprising, as in this focus acquired immunity in adults should not have yet developed according to current hypothesis. The antigen detection assays (CAA/CCA) showed high sensitivity and quantitative power, and promising perspectives as a research tool and possibly as a method for non-invasive diagnosis and screening in urine. Epidemiological in subsequent cohorts were highly similar, although seasonal variations were observed possibly due to transmission fluctuations. Anti-AWA and anti-SEA IgE levels increased with age, while IgG4 peaked in the age-group 10 years and correlated well with egg counts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Adult . Africa . Africa South Of The Sahara . Age Factors . Biology . Child . Child Health . Cohort Analysis . Demographic Factors . Developing Countries . Diseases . Examinations And Diagnoses . French Speaking Africa . Health . Hematological Effects . Hemic System . Immunoglobulin Alterations . Laboratory Examinations And Diagnoses . Laboratory Procedures . Parasitic Diseases . Physiology . Population . Population Characteristics . Population Dynamics . Research Methodology . Seasonal Variation . Senegal . Treatment . Western Africa . Youth.