Chromatographic tools for analyzing and tracking non-ionic surfactants in the aquatic environment
Abstract This review describes the developments over the last few decades in the routine determination of two major types of non-ionic surfactants in environmental samples, i.e. alkylphenol ethoxylates (APE) and alcohol ethoxylates (AE). Commercial mixtures of these surfactants consist of several tens to hundreds of homologues, oligomers and isomers. Therefore, their identification and quantitation in the environment is complicated and cumbersome. The request for more specific analytical methods has prompted a replacement of all the separate steps in traditional, usually non-chromatographic methods of analysis of AP and APE by chromatographic tools. Thus, a 100-fold gain in detection limits has been achieved. Determination of AE and APE in aqueous samples is possible at the ppb level nowadays, when solid-phase extraction, including chromatographic cleanup, is applied, followed by liquid chromatography (LC). Reversed-phase LC resolves the various alkyl homologues, whereas normal-phase LC provides information on the ethoxylate oligomer distribution. Because of differences in (bio)degradation patterns observed in the aqueous environment between AE and APE, it is recommended to analyse AE by reversed-phase LC and APE by normal-phase LC. The more sophisticated hyphenated LC-MS techniques provide full information on isomer, oligomer and homologue distribution of both AE and APE.
원문보기 무료다운로드 유료다운로드
- 무료 원문 정보가 존재하지 않습니다.
유료 다운로드의 경우 해당 사이트의 정책에 따라 신규 회원가입, 로그인, 유료 구매 등이 필요할 수 있습니다. 해당 사이트에서 발생하는 귀하의 모든 정보활동은 NDSL의 서비스 정책과 무관합니다.
NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.