Amine-ene technology III: investigation of the properties of some branched maleate oligomers in ultraviolet light curable, amine-ene coatings
Photocrosslinking utilizing the amine-ene reaction with benzophenone (BP) as the hydrogen abstraction photoinitiator was investigated using the Simplex Experimental Design technique. Coating formulations consisting of three basic components: an allyl terminated polyester, a polymer bound amine synergist, and a branched maleate oligomer (BMO) were prepared. The chemical structure of the BMO component was varied by introducing four different saturated difunctional carboxylic acids into an oligomer backbone containing tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate as a branching agent. The average double bond functionality of the oligomers was held constant at four and the equivalent weight was maintained between 400 and 425. Some structure-property dependence was observed for the solvent resistance and pencil hardness data at a cure dose of 3 J/cm 2 . These oligomers were compared with a BMO which contained no saturated dicarboxylic acid component and had an equivalent weight of 340. In spite of the lower functionality, cure rate (MEK double rub resistance) increased with the decreased double bond equivalent weight at a cure dose of 1 J/cm 2 . Comparison of a linear internal maleate unsaturated polyester oligomer with a BMO indicated an advantage for the use of the BMO. The average crosslink density for the BMO systems, as determined from the equilibrium modulus data, was about 10 20 > crosslinks per cc. Of the three intramolecular cleavage photoinitiators evaluated, only 2-hydroxyl-2-methyl-1-phenyl-propan-1-one (HMPP) produced a faster cure rate than BP.(Author abstract)
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