The cosmological constant and the red shift of quasars
How the cosmological constant that is used in Einstein's model has an equivalent in the Big Bang model is discussed; gravitational fields are also considered. That model requires a critical density of matter that leads to the problem of dark matter. It is shown that data on new cosmological structures and on a non-Doppler red-shift mechanism lead to an unlimited and ageless Universe. It is also explained why quasars appear to be unusual objects and have a large red shift while being physically much closer to us than usually claimed. One can see that their luminosity is about the same as standard galaxies and not as millions of galaxies as believed previously. One can also explain why the luminosity-distance relationship observed in galaxies is not observed in quasars.