Quantitative XPS. Part II. Comparison between different quantitative approaches for two different spectrometers - determination of the contamination-reduced thickness, application of the determined transmission functions and accuracy achieved
The first principles model (FPM) has been compared with other quantitative approaches by using many standard samples. As a first step, the applicability of the theoretical dependence of I C 1s > I C KVV on the reduced thickness (x) of a hydrocarbon surface contamination layer was checked and shown to be approximately correct only in the middle range of x. A semiempirical relation between I C 1s > I C KVV > and x has been developed. The advantage of this relation over that previously developed in the literature is that the transmission function of our spectrometer is well characterized. The reduced thickness calculated using this semiempirical relation has been shown to be close to the real value. The comparison of atomic ratios calculated using these quantitative approaches has shown that the best approach is the FPM. For the samples investigated in this work, the introduction of the anisotropy parameter L is not necessary: in most cases, the influence of L is smaller than the observed errors; and in certain cases where the difference of L values is large, more consistent results are obtained when L is ignored. The FPM approach provides consistent results not only when an inter-comparison is made between different spectrometers but also when, within a given machine, the analysis conditions are varied. The accuracy of this approach is relatively good (with errors
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