X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of fired palladium electrode ink materials
The oxidation state of palladium in an electrode ink dispersion, air-dried on barium titanate dielectric substrates, has been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as a function of both firing temperature and firing atmosphere. Several different states have been identified in amounts which vary over the firing temperature range of interest, i.e., palladium metal, a so-called PdO ads species, PdO and palladium in one or more higher oxidation states. No significant differences were observed for the two different contacting atmospheres used during firing, namely, air and flowing nitrogen. Owing to overlap of the Pd 3p 3/2 > and the O 1s spectral envelopes, peak fitting of the oxygen signal was not attempted. Small amounts of residual carbonaceous ash were detected for all the samples studied over the whole range of firing temperatures employed. XPS analysis of a sample of the palladium ink, fired to 1350°C in air and subsequently etched using a fast atom bombardment argon source, showed that the subsurface palladium was metallic in nature, although the original metal surface was composed almost entirely of PdO. Thus, for these palladium inks, when fired to temperatures comparable with those used in multilayer ceramic capacitor manufacture, apart from a thin surface oxide layer, the palladium present is in the metallic form, as required for electrode layer conduction.(Author abstract)
원문보기 무료다운로드 유료다운로드
- 무료 원문 정보가 존재하지 않습니다.
NDSL에서는 해당 원문을 복사서비스하고 있습니다. 아래의 원문복사신청 또는 장바구니 담기를 통하여 원문복사서비스 이용이 가능합니다.