XPS reference procedure for the accurate intensity calibration of electron spectrometers - results of a BCR intercomparison co-sponsored by the VAMAS SCA TWA
A calibration procedure has been developed for XPS instrument intensity scales. The calibration is achieved by measuring the spectrum for reference foils of Ag, Au and Cu for which the true spectrum has been measured using the metrology spectrometer. The ratio of the measured and reference spectra at 1 eV intervals from 200 eV kinetic energy to 1600 eV provides the calibration known as Q(E). The calibrations from all reference foils for a given instrument and setting should be the same and may be averaged to enhance accuracy. An interlaboratory study involving 58 different instruments, covering 25 different models from 9 manufacturers, has been completed with over 1200 individual spectra measured. The results show that the calibrations are excellent but that care is required or systematic errors may arise from instrumental problems such as X-ray anode contamination, sample contamination, contributions from the sample holder and internal scattering in the spectrometer. However, these problems may be readily diagnosed. The Cu data often show carbon contamination and so those data are omitted from the assessment of Q(E). The instruments provide unmonochromated X-rays from Al and Mg anodes as well as monochromated Al sources. The Q(E) curves for the unmonochromated sources always agree with each other, whereas that for the monochromated source may agree with those for the unmonochromated sources in some instruments but not in others. The reason for the differences may lie in stray magnetic fields or lens magnification effects.(Edited author abstract)
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