Studies on bone markers and bone mineral density in patients with chronic renal failure.
Renal osteodystrophy has become a frequent complication in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), and various histologic forms such as high turnover, low turnover and mixed bone disease have been demonstrated. The only reliable method for distinguishing patients with high turnover from those with low turnover bone disease is bone histomorphometric study, but its clinical utility is restricted. Because of its invasive nature, efforts have been made to predict indirectly the type and severity of this metabolic bone disease by serum assays. In this cross-sectional study, we measured total and regional (head, arms, trunk, ribs, legs, spine and pelvis) bone mineral densities (BMD) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in patients with variable degrees of CRF and correlated them with various bone markers. Decreased BMDs were detected in various skeletal sites (trunk and pelvis) in the patients' group. Total BMD Z score was lower in predialysis CRF patients than in the control subjects. Decreased BMD Z scores on weight-bearing bone were pronounced at L1 lumbar vertebra, femur trochanter, femur neck and Ward's triangle. Positive linear correlations were found between creatinine clearance and trunk, ribs, pelvis, and spine BMDs. There were inverse linear correlations between total BMD and total BMD Z score and alkaline phosphatase (AP), urine deoxypyridinoline (U-DPD) in the patients' group. There were no correlations between regional and total BMD, total BMD Z score and serum calcium, ionized calcium, and serum phosphate. There were inverse linear correlations between BUN, creatinine and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in the predialysis CRF group. We evaluated the correlations between intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH) and biochemical and other bone markers. There was statistically significant linear correlation between i-PTH and AP. Other bone markers have no significant correlations with i-PTH. Our results demonstrated that there is significant bone loss in patients with CRF before the start of dialysis and also regional variations of BMDs in predialysis CRF patients. DXA is a useful method for evaluating regional and total BMDs and provides information about diverse regional skeletal changes. AP, i-PTH and U-DPD can predict BMD of predialysis CRF patients.
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