In Vitro Bioassay of Endotoxin Using Fluorescein as a pH Indicator in a Macrophage Cell Culture System
Based on the biological activity of endotoxin, we propose a possible new method for detecting endotoxin using a pH-indication system of macrophage culture media. After RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the addition of fluorescein to the LPS-treated media reproductively reduced its absorption and emission spectra (it was a dose-dependent reduction). The advantages of this LPS-detection method were compared with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) test by using purified bacterial LPS ( Salmonella minnessota , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ). Additionally, the absorption and fluorescence intensity of fluorescein, following treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with a high concentration of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive, lysed bacteria), could not generally be detected by the LAL test, but they were found to be reduced, in a dose-response relationship, with this new system. The macrophage culture system-method might be a good supplement to the LAL assay for detection of LPS, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
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