The Effect of Ultrasound on Epidermal Permeability Barrier and Lipid Synthesis
BACKGROUND: Abrogation of the epidermal permeability barrier results in an increased lipid synthesis and lipid synthetic enzymes. Recent studies have shown that ultrasound can induce changes in the epidermal calcium gradient that increase lamellar body secretion without increasing transepidermal water loss (TEWL). OBJECTIVE: We undertook this study to identify whether ultrasound can stimulate lipids synthetic enzymes and lipids synthesis. METHODS: Ultrasounds were applied to the skin of hairless mice, and we then quantified lipid synthesis, real time RT-PCR to measure mRNA activities of lipid synthetic enzymes and TEWL. We also performed RuO4 post fixation and calcium ion capture cytochemistry. RESULTS: There were no significant changes of TEWL before and after ultrasound treatment. Calcium in upper epidermis decreased and that in lower epidermis increased after treatment of ultrasound and some recovery of epidermal calcium gradient after 6 hours. In RuO4 post fixation, lacuna dilatation, partial distension of intercorneocyte space, loss of multilamellar structures and increased lamellar body secretion were observed in the epidermis of the ultrasound treated hairless mice. The mRNA levels of 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and lipid synthesis were increased in the epidermis of the ultrasound treated hairless mice. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound can increase mRNA of lipids synthetic enzymes and lipids synthesis without increasing TEWL by changing calcium ion gradients.
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