Seeking Global Human Security A Proposal of Human Security Index (HSI) and Japan's ODA Strategy in Human Security
It is well known that the development theories, after the end of the World War Ⅱ, have had at least two big paradigm shifts; the first one took place in the late 60's and the second one began in the late 80's, stemming from the strong criticism of the Neoclassical approach, and even today it still continues. Surprisingly enough, most of the prominent and influential development new theories appeared in the second shift have common characteristics; human security or human development and good governance or politics are the center of attention as crucial factors of development in developing countries. Therefore, this paper first introduces the new idea of development: human Security and human development. Secondly this paper deals with the concept of good governance and the importance of politics in terms of development, together with a analysis of the reason and background why this new thinking emerged as crucial and important element in development theory. And this paper concludes that development should be focused on human welfare and be regarded as a dynamic and complex process where three major different dimensions are interrelated: economic, social and political (good governance); this could be called Comprehensive Human Development. So not only economic and social dimensions, but these three dimensions should be paid more attention in development studies, otherwise, development could not be dealt with properly. This paper also touches upon some serious and difficult problems to be faced when good governance policy is carried out in practice, because of the fact that good governance is related to the very politics of each developing country. Thirdly, this paper proposes a new idea of Human Security Index (HSI), based on the above mentioned new concept of Comprehensive Human Development, showing the way how the HSI is obtained. HSI is a tentative new index which covers three dimensions in development or Comprehensive Human Development. Using the HSI, we may grasp a whole picture of development in each country in figures. Lastly, this paper introduces Japan's ODA strategy in terms of human security and concludes that HSI will be a strong means not only in measuring correctly the overall development picture of each country but also offers the common grounds for donors and recipient counties. HSI is a strong and useful index in advancement of development.
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