Molecular Characteristics of Extended Spectrum beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the Prevalence of qnr in Extended Spectrum beta-Lactamase Isolates in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Korea.
Purpose: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are cephalosporinases that confer resistance to a wide variety of oxyimino cephalosporins and create serious therapeutic problems. In addition, the quinolone resistance qnr genes are becoming increasingly prevalent in clinical isolates, some of which also produce ESBL. This study was designed to evaluate the occurrence and genotypic distribution of ESBL producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) as well as the prevalence and distribution of qnr genes in ESBL-producing isolates in a tertiary care hospital in Korea. Materials and Methods: We tested a total of 111 ESBL-producing isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae, which were collected at Kyung Hee Medical Center from November 2006 to June 2008. ESBL production was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) ESBL confirmatory test. The cefotaxime and ceftazidime resistance of the ESBL-producers were transferred to azide-resistant E. coli J53 by conjugation. The presence and identity of ESBL and qnr genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequencing. Results: The prevalence of ESBLs was 17.7% (297/1,680) of E. coli and 26.5% (240/904) of K. pneumoniae in our hospital during the study periods. Of the 111 collected isolates, 69 isolates were E. coli and 42 isolates were K. pneumoniae. The most prevalent ESBL genotype was CTX-M15. Among the ESBL-producing isolates, 4 E. coli (5.8%) and 17 K. pneumoniae (40.5%) contained qnr genes. qnrB4 was the most frequent type in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Conclusion: CTX-M15 was the most frequently encountered ESBL. In addition, a high prevalence of qnr genes among ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae was identified in this study.
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