Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor in the Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
Purpose Several signaling pathways have been shown to regulate the lineage commitment and terminal differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling has important effects on the process of skeletogenesis. In the present study, we tested the role of bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR) in the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells in osteogenic medium (OM) with or without BMP-2. Materials and Methods BMSCs were harvested from rats and cultured in OM containing dexamethasone, β-glycerophosphate, and ascorbic acid, with or without BMP-2 in order to induce osteogenic differentiation. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay and von kossa staining were used to assess the osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs. BMPR mRNA expression was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The BMSCs that underwent osteogenic differentiation in OM showed a higher level of ALP activity and matrix mineralization. BMP-2 alone induced a low level of ALP activity and matrix mineralization in BMSCs, but enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs when combined with OM. The OM significantly induced the expression of type IA receptor of BMPR (BMPRIA) and type II receptor of BMPR (BMPRII) in BMSCs after three days of stimulation, while BMP-2 significantly induced BMPRIA and BMPRII in BMSCs after nine or six days of stimulation, respectively. Conclusion BMSCs commit to osteoblastic differentiation in OM, which is enhanced by BMP-2. In addition, BMP signaling through BMPRIA and BMPRII regulates the osteogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs in OM with or without BMP-2.
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