國語 音素 分布의 通時的 變化
A Study on Diachronic Change of Phonemic Distribution in Korean
本稿는 現代國語의 固有 單一語와 近代國語 以前의 고유 단일어의 음소 분포를 비교 분석하여 국어 음소 분포의 歷史的 變化過程과 國語의 類型的 特徵을 살핀 것이다. 統計的 技法을 이용하여 분석한 결과 국어 전체에서는 一般的인 音節構造로서 CV 구조가 선호되고, 현대어에서 子音群과 重子音이 감소한다. 消失된 音素의 分布 비율은 매우 낮아 消失을 예측할 수 있으며, ''의 소실분이 '아, 으'에 그대로 반영되지 않은 것으로 보아 ''의 변화 경향은 절대적이지 않음을 알 수 있다. 語末 '이'의 비율과 起源的인 Vy 계열의 모음 비율이 모두 높은 것으로 보아 Vy 계열의 모음은 Vi가 變化하여 形成된 것으로 보인다. 終聲 子音으로는 共鳴子音이, 語幹 末母音으로는 '이'가 選好되는 경향이 나타난다. 특정 母音(어, 오, 우)의 開音節 用言과 특정 子音(ㅇ, ㄴ)을 末音으로 가지는 用言이 全無하거나 극히 낮은 것은 國語의 活用 樣相과 밀접한 관련이 있다.
This paper aims to survey the diachronic change of phonemic distribution in Korean. It is supposed that the change of phonemic distribution could reflect the historical change and typological characteristics in Korean. Based on this assumption, each of the 6,364 native simple words selected from a comtemporary dictionary and 5,309 words selected from old dictionaries are analyzed by computer and the distributions of phonemes were compared in various environments with each other. Overall phonemic distribution and tendencies of change agreed with the linguistic universal. The CV structure is the most general syllable structure in Korean and the syllable which has this structure has increased in modern Korean. Either in syllable-initial or in syllable-final, consonant clusters decreased in modern Korean. And most of the triphthongs and many diphthongs vanished from the vowel system or were changed into monophthongs. Regardless of the location in a word, stops and monophthongs are overwhelmingly prominent among each of the consonants and vowels. The tendencies of historical change are confirmed and inducted by analyzing the phonemic distribution of vanished phonemes or phonemes changed into different phonemes. Since the distributional ratio of these phonemes are extremely low, the vanishment or change of these phonemes is expected. It is generally said that the vanished vowel '(ʌ)" was changed into 'a(아)" in word-initial and into 'ɨ(으)" in non word-initial. However, because the distributional ratio of 'ʌ()" was not exactly added to the distributional ratio of 'a(아)" and ' (ɨ으)", the tendency of 'ʌ()" change is not absolute. The high distributional ratio of 'i(이)" and Vy, which was originally dipthong, tells us that Vy structure vowels have its origin in Vi structure. Some phonemic distribution tells us the typological characteristics of Korean. Sonorant consonants are preferred in syllable-final and 'i(이)" is preferred in word-final. Although these characteristic distributions are caused by the productivity of some suffixes, it is probable that the productivity of some suffixes is related to the phonological structure of these suffixes. The structure of these suffixes are in agreement with the general phonemic distribution. The increase of affricates and the complex change of phonemic distribution in syllable-final reflect the diachronic phonological process in Korean. It is connected with the characteristic inflectional aspect in Korean that the absence of open syllables, which has some vowels(ə(어), o(오), u(우)), and closed syllables which have some consonants(ŋ(ㅇ), n(ㄴ)).
音素 分布 . 固有 單一語 . 通時的 變化 . 類型的 特徵 . 初聲 . 終聲 . 開音節 . phonemic distribution . native simple word . diachronic change . typological characteristics . linguistic universal . syllable-initial . syllable-final . open syllable . one syllable word.
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