김지하와 개리 스나이더의 토착문화 그리고 자연
Ecoconsciousness in the Indigenous Cultures Revisited by Chi-ha Kim and Gary Snyder
In spite of differences in their cultural and historical backgrounds, Chi-ha Kim and Gary Snyder share ecoconsciousness rooted in the metaphysical tradition of each country's indigenous culture. Seeking an alternative culture, first, both of the poets debunk the mainstream cultural values of the West, which seem to have fostered anti-environmental thoughts and practice throughout the human history. In his recent works, Kim attempts to invigorate the element of yin, which he confesses was deficient in his poetic vision of the 1960s and 70s. The well-harmonized world view of yin and yang provides a pivot to Kim' s sangmyungsasang(生命思想), a nonanthropocentic insight. Although the poet Kim imports the Chinese metaphysics of yin and yang per se, he differentiates it from the indigenous thoughts of Korea, in which 'I' might actively participate in the operation of the universe. In other words, Kim's world view is dynamic while the Chinese theory is based on the fixed vision of the universe. By establishing the universal self, thus, each one has to promote the liveliness of inanimate things as well as all kinds of sentient beings. Snyder criticizes the anti-ecological thoughts embedded in the mainstream cultural values of the West and seeks an alternative view of life. For the creation of a new myth, he draws attention to the indigenous thoughts and lifeway of Native Americans at the very start of his literary career. Later in his poetics, the Native American spirituality is connected with the Buddhist's egalitarianism and compassion. In short, he dreams of a new and old way of life, which is articulated with Native American primitivism. It is significantly instructive that the two poets have recourse to their own cultural values for the alternative eco-vision: as in most cases, true globalization should accompany localization in terms of achieving ecological sustainability, since cultural variety tends to hand in hand with biological diversity.
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