17세기 네덜란드의 이탈리아풍 풍경화 - 밤보찬티(bamboccianti)를 중심으로 -
17th Century Dutch Italianate Landscape and the Bamboccianti
This study is concerned with the Bamboccianti and its artistic sources. The term Bamboccianti was derived from its inventor Pieter van Laer(1599~1642) and refers to a painting genre dealing with everyday life in the streets of Rome and its suburban Campagna. Especially in early works of Pieter van Laer, Jan Both and Jan Aselijn we can observe that the elements of landscape take an important position. Thus it seems worth investigating the source of its landscape, i.e. the Italianate landscape, and the process of artistic adaptation of the Bamboccianti In addition to this, this paper also attempts to examine the sources of its genre themes in oder to understand the nature and character of the Bamboccianti. The Bamboccianti depicted the every day life of the poor and ordinary people in a beautiful Italian landscape background in a witty or comic way. Thus, we could say, they do not deliver the real situation of the time. The landscape background of the above mentioned artists was based on those of the founders of the Italianate landscape, i.e Cornelis van Poelenburgh and Bartholomeus Breeenbergh. These Bamboccianti made further contribution to its development by portraying the bright southern sun light with closer attention and applying more organized space compositions Besides this, they placed big staffage figures in the foreground and represented them in an artistically vivid way, so that the low-class people received an expressional value. Thus the early Bamboccianti invented a new category of painting in which the aspect of genre dominates that of landscape. It is interesting to note that the Bamboccianti is connected not only with the Netherlandish landscape tradition but with its iconographic tradition as well. For instance, the motifs of lime kiln or beggars were already painted in Flandre and the Netherlands, and m particular the theme of robbery and hold-up which began to be developed m Flandre m the 16th century reached its peak in the Netherlands at the time when van Laer received his artistic education in Haarlem. The reason why the scenes such as robbery were received in Rome with great popularity could be of course explained in the context of the social situation there It was van Laer who came to an idea to adapt the northern genre theme which was earlier invented owing to the similar social circumstances and to apply to the Roman reality. This new approach could not have been easily thought of by the Roman artists who were accustomed to the grand style of history painting in Italy and were generally expected to follow the norms of the Roman art world. It seems that the Bamboccianti found out the possibility of this art market and developed a new style with success. However, the Bambocciani did not slavishly apply the artistic tradition of their own country. They substituted the idealized Italian landscape for the realistic Dutch one and made the elements of genre staffage as the mam aspect of the picture The Bamboccianti thereby strengthens the narrative contents, keeping aesthetic values though Through the adaptation to the Roman art market they could thus appeal to the customers there. The new pictures of the Bamboccianti would have provided a possibility to appreciate another kind of art for the intellectual Roman spectators who were m general offered to see history paintings
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