이브 : 욕정의 對象에서 인류의 祖上으로 - 14~5세기 이탈리아에서의 이브인식의 변화 -
Eve: From Object of Sexual Desire to Ancestor of Humankind - Changes in Eve Images in the 14th~15th Century Italy
Images of Eve as an agent of temptation or an object of lust, were counterparts to the images of the Virgin Mary in the Medieval period, and underwent changes in the 14th-15th centuries. Earlier Medieval images of Eve in which the artist had avoided a detailed representation of the female body, changed to beautiful female nude like Venus and was given a saintly halo. Eve was admired as the originary mother of the humankind and also as a the first woman to take on female role within the family. As the figure of Eve allowed artists to paint the female nude in a Biblical context, it reflected certain social implications for the female body. Pictorial interpretations of Adam and Eve provided an image of sex partners between men and women and of the institution of marriage. Under the ascetic values of the Church Fathers, relatively liberal relationships between men and women, as they had existed in earlier ancient society, were received as negative relationships. Sexual relations, marriage and Paradise were believed to be as incompatible as the Paradise and death. The new ascetic doctrines held that it was only possible to ascend to the Paradise through the protecting of one's virginity or by practicing celibacy. This renunciation of the body by the Church Fathers proscribed that one refuses the woman equated as they were designed to tempt men For The Church Fathers, woman was the origin of temptation and, in consequence, Eve was seen as its representative figure. Woman, Eve, the snake, and the feeling of lust, became vaguely related in the collective sense of misogynistic imaginary(fig 4). As a counterpart to the seductive Eve, the Virgin Mary was exulted as the ideal woman, an exemplary figure to represent the ideologies of obedience, virginity and modesty. Mary was the figure who might redeem man for Eve's sin. And an image in the manuscription from Salzburg illustrates the distinction between Mary and Eve as a virgin and a lust, as life and death(fig 5) The Maesta(figs. 6~8) of Ambrogio Lorenzetti was based upon these doctrines, but represents a new Eve at the same time. In this Image of Eve, positioned at the feet of the Virgin Mary, shows us her inscription, "I committed the sin for which Christ, whom this Queen bore m her womb, suffered the Passion for our Salvation." Despite the aforementioned doctrinal dualism of the two types of women, Eve is shown reclining and adorned in a diaphanous gown like Venus. Interestingly, this is not a misogynistic representation. In her hand Eve holds not the apple of temptation but a fig as a symbol of the humankind. In other examples of this type, Eve is no longer a sinful temptress but a respectable woman. In Madonna and Child (figs. 11, 12) by Paolo di Giovanni Fei, Eve has a polygonal halo indicative of a non-Christian holy figure Eve reclines wearing a semi-transparent gown and, accompanied by her two sons showing us her inscription: "In sorrow I bring forth." In this panel Eve is represented not as a temptation for Adam, but as a mother who brought humankind. The idea of Eve as an ancestor of Jesus is illustrated clearly in the altarpiece of The tree of life in Landesmuseum (fig. 13). Adam and Eve stand under a tree with a Crucifix and are crowned with perfectly circular halos. The ideal halos here represent the doctrine that Christ, his redemption of mankind originated with these first humans. An Eve figure, holding a distaff like lance on the mid-15th century fresco, The Great Men and Women, in the Villa Carducci, near Firenze contributes yet another different representation from the lustrous Eve that we have seen. Painted by Andres del Castagno, his illusionistic view makes Eve's image appear more heroic(figs. 15~17) The distaff, a symbol of woman's labor, is a new element which appeared after the 14th century, when the importance of labor and professoin was beginning to be recognized. In his text on Art, Cennino d' Andrea Cennini begins with the book of Ge..
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