1930~40년대 중국목판화에 미친 서구미술의 영향
The Influence of Western Art on Chinese Woodcuts during the 1930s and 1940s
What we cannot omit in the discussion of Chinese modern art history is the discussion on modern woodcuts. The undergraduates of the college of fine art who participated in the movement of woodcuts during the 1930s and 1940s continue to act as wood-block artists, oil painters and chrysanthemum artists m the later generations, and the formation of modern woodcuts distinguished from traditional wood-block prints was made in the thirties as a starting point Also, because the point of time making a stroke between duplicated wood carving and created wood engraving in the history of wood-block prints is this period It is necessary to pay attention to the thirties and forties in the history of Chinese wood-block prints. The revival of woodcuts can be said to gear into the situation existent China was located in, that is, the social situation of the twenties and thirties. Globally, this is not irrelevant to the rediscovery of created woodcuts inI German movement of woodcuts and the West. Therefore, what is noteworthy among all the phenomena of the thirties is Western influences In view of the history of negotiating with the West in the history of China, China has maintained its closing attitude toward Occidental cultures since it was communized m 1949 and has disconnected also its exchanges with Soviet since the period of cultural revolution The exchanges with foreign countries and positive acceptance of Western cultures m the thirties are said to be meaningful in such points. Between 1919 and 1929, the books dealing with on Western art theories and aesthetics were published in more than hundreds of pieces in the modes of fine art, impressionism, neo-impressionism, Fauvism and German expressionism were brought in by the students studying abroad in Paris and Germany However, students in the college of fine art including Luxun were more interested in social critical art rather than performing art. Chinese woodcuts during the thirties to forties seems to have been developed mainly centering on exhibitions and collections of wood-block prints In the thirties, there were exhibitions and brief courses of woodcuts that held total thirty-odd times, and it was through "Yewonjohwa" series that foreign wood-block artists and their works were introduced into China Through this book of paintings were Carl Meffert, Kathe Kollwilz, Franz Masereel, Pavorsky, Pisakarev and Kravchenko introduced. These artists considerably popular to Chinese woodcut artists, were wood-block artists favoring for expressionism and realism Their thoughts and modes were formed through the process of popularization of modem woodcut movement It was the acceptance of Western wood-block prints that made a great contribution to the initial stage of forming such Chinese modem woodcuts. Luxun introduced Soviet and European wood-block printing works through exhibitions and books of wood-block prints between 1930 and 1936. Eventually, the acceptance of Western wood-block prints must have been selected according to Luxun's understanding of Western wood-block prints and evaluating them Luxun paid attention to artists' artistic qualities and talents, artists' senses and experiences and messages conveyed by their works in introducing Western artists to Chinese woodcut artists One of the great characteristics of Western woodcuts selected on these foundations was on relevancy with literature and realistic modes. This is related to the revolution of books in Russia, and Russia encouraged consecutive works and illustrations as artistic forms and adopted them as popular forms. Luxun introduced the works of Western artists as an example of consecutive pamtings. Kathe Kollwitz's consecutive works of "Peasants' War" and "Workmen", Karl Mefert's Illustration of "Cement", Piskarev's "The Stream of Iron" and Alexeev's illustration of "A Mother" are commonly consecutive works and have having one story in common. Also, Franz Maasereer..
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