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華溪寺 觀音殿 地藏三尊圖 硏究
A Study on the Kstigarbha Boddhisattva Triad at Kwanumjon in Hwagyesa

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    The purpose of this article is to examine the characteristic style and format of a painting depicting Kstigarbha Roddhisattva Triad displayed at the Kwanumjon(Kuanyin-Hall) in the temple of Hwagyesa, as well as to investigate its artist and patrons. The Hwagyesa is located at Mt. Samgak, Kangbuk-gu in Seoul. The Kwanumjon was constructed at Hwagyesa in 1875 when the royal court donated an Embroidered Avalokitesvara Roddhisattva. Unfortunately, in 1974 the Kwanumjon was burned down and the sculptures and buddhist paintings inside the hall were incinerated However, the Kstigarbha Roddhisattva Triad was miraculously survived. In this account, the Kstigarbha Roddhisattva Triad became the only tangible evidence which provides the historical background of the Kwanumjon and gives an opportunity to comprehend the significance of the Hwagyesa's three-lime renovations in the late-19th century The Kstigarbha Roddhisattva Triad is composed of the Boddhisattva attended by Mudokgwiwang(無毒鬼王) and Domyongchonja(道明尊者) on either side In the late 19th century, the Kstigarbha Roddhisattva tended to be represented accompanying with multiple buddhist divinities rather than a triad type. Therefore, the triad of the Hwagyesa may be regarded as a rare example. Although the triad format was unusual to that period, it is in fact suitable for visually emphasizing the painting itself in a small size building like the Kwanumjon. In the Triad, the Kstigarbha Roddhisattva in the center raised his hand to his chest holding a transparent jewel. The lotus pedestal he is standing on seems to be emerging from a water surface Such a format and stylistic elements explicitly display certain stylistic affinities with buddhist paintings produced, especially, in and around the Kyonggi Province between 1870 and 1880 The artists of the Kstigarbha Roddhisattva Triad are believed to be buddhist monks One of them is known as Hwasanjaegun(華山在根), who had a close relationship with the Hwagyesa. His name first appeared m 1870 at the lime when the main hall of the Hwagyesa was renovated. Later, he became involved in the reconstruction of the Wontongsa in 1874. During that period, he seemed to become familiar With the Kyonggi regional style. In 1875, he took a charge of Amitabha Painting for the mam hall of the Hwagyesa. In 1876 he shortly stayed m the Kyongsang Province, but soon returned Hanyang(present Seoul) and then was actively engaged m the execution of the Kstigarbha Boddhisattva Triad. In 1878, he joined in painting Kstigarbha Boddhisattva Triad and Ten Kings of Hell to be dedicated for the Myongbujon in the Kangsosa. As discussed above, the artist Hwasanjaegon seemed to be actively involved in painting and repairing buddhist paintings between 1870 and 1878. The three-time renovation of the Hwagyesa between 1870 and 1878 was made possible by the patronage of royal family and high-ranking court ladies. It was the first time that Hung son Daewongun(1820~1898), the father of Kojong, gave a patronage to the Hwagyesa. Since the construction of the Kwanumjon in 1875 and the donation of the Embroidered Avalokite'svara Boddhisattva had been made, the patronage of lady members of the royal family such as the Grand queen mother Cho(l808~1890), the Queen mother Hong(l80l~1903), Consort Kim, and Court Lady Kim became increasingly noticeable. Their contribution to the construction of the Kwanumjon and Myongbujon cannot not be overemphasized This article deals with the Kstigarbha Boddhisattva Triad as an Important piece of a work to reveal that Kwanumjon, a place to pray for the rebirth in Pure Land, was closely related to the Queen mother Hong. In addition, it sheds light on that the Court Lady Kim was not only an important donator in the thud renovation of the Hwagyesa, but also played an intermediary role between the high-ranking royal ladies and the temple. To sum up, the painting of the Kstigarbha Boddhisattva Triad serves as an important evidence of displaying ..


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