統一新羅 石塔浮彫 八部衆 圖像과 配置 硏究
A Study on the Iconography and Arrangement of the Eight Classes of Divine Beings Carved on the Stone Pagodas of the Unified Silla Dynasty
In Buddhist texts, there are many records regarding the eight classes of super natural existences such as gods, semi-gods, human beings, and animals, who had already appeared in ancient Indian myths, gathered to hear the Buddha's preaching. They were called as Eight Classes of Divine Beings(八部衆). They usually mean non-human assembly such as Deva(天), N?a(龍), Yakṣa(夜叉), Gandharva(乾喪婆), ?ura(阿修羅), Garuḍa(迦樓羅), Kiṃnara(緊那羅) and Mahoraga(摩戇羅伽) in Mahayana Buddhist text. In general, the iconography of the Eight Classes of Divine Beings carved on the base of stone pagodas(石塔) was interpreted as gods who protect the Buddhist teaching, the land of the Buddha, or Sariras(舍利) stored in the pagoda. However, there are not many records regarding these aspects of Eight Classes of Divine Beings in the Buddhist texts. Most records referred them as an audience of the Buddha's teaching. It is consistent with the monuments of Eight Classes of Divine Beings in China and Japan in that they usually mean a part of congregation. Some texts describe that Eight Classes of Divine Beings gathered to listen to the teachings of the Buddha around precious pagoda(寶塔) or Buddhist hall(殿閣). Therefore believers who read those texts may interpret that Eight Classes of Divine Beings was related with pagodas. Considering that stone pagodas in Unified Silla are religious symbols, carvings of Eight Classes of Divine Beings in particular who appeared in texts, may have symbols with complicated meanings. In this article, Eight Classes of Divine Beings carved on the pagodas in Unified Silla area was interpreted as the visualization of Eight Assemblage who is described as prayers to pagodas in Lotus Sŭtra(妙法蓮華經) and Sugudharani Sŭtra(隨求陀羅尼經). The iconography of carvings of Eight Classes of Divine Beings represented in Unified Silla's pagodas reflected many characteristics established in the Central Asia or China. Among them, Devas or Mahoragas wearing crown of dragons or snakes, Garuḍa with sharp beaks and jowls and Gandharvas with lion crowns may have been originated from India. On the other hand, there are two patterns of Deva symbolizing gods residing in the heaven: one with vajra(金剛杵) that was popular in the eighth and ninth centuries and the other wearing Makara crown(摩竭魚冠) that was popular in Myeongju(溟洲) region of Gangwon-do province in the ninth century. Deva wearing Makara crown can be interpreted as God of Water(水天), Varuna god who is responsible for West. Sculptors of the pagodas may have tried to symbolize gods in the heaven through these specific icons. In addition, the iconography who has three heads and eight arms or three heads and six arms symbolizes Asuras and the one holding beads was Yak a who protects treasures and minerals. The other iconography wearing crown with heads of animals such as birds, cows or horses is interpreted as Kiṃnaras. The iconographies of Yakṣa, Kiṃnara, and Gandharva playing the Gonghu(曇撞) wearing lion crowns seem to be established in Unified Silla independently. It shows the idiosyncrasies of pagodas in Unified Silla just like the case of Eight Classes of Divine Beings on the pagodas. Names of Eight Classes of Divine Beings inferred from the descriptions in the Buddhist texts can also be summarized systematically in arrangement of iconographies on four sides of the pagodas. Deva holding vajra and god with Makara crown were engraved on the same side where Garuḍas with bird beacons or arranged around corner columns(隅柱) as three-storied pagodas of Jibo temple(持寶寺) or of Shingye temple(神溪寺). It is consistent with myths that Viṣṇu rides Garuḍa or Indra made friends with Garuḍa because he was attracted by the power of Garuḍa. N?ga-Yak as were the gods of Dravidian people, while the pairing of Deva-..
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