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한국 초기 방송의 국영화 과정에 관한 연구 - 1945년부터 1953년까지를 중심으로
The Establishment of the "State-Operated" Broadcasting System in Korea, 1945~1953

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    The most distinctive characteristic of broadcasting in Korea is its dependence on the state. The reason is that the broadcasting system has been under the control of the state for the past several decades. Nevertheless, the historical causes and the impact of state control over broadcasting have not been major topics of research. Therefore this study examines the establishment of the state-op?rated broadcasting system in Korea with the purpose of understand?ng the origin of the state-controlled broadcasting structure. This study primarily examines the reorganization of broadcasting of 1945~1953 through the analysis of the broadcasting policies, institutional characteristics, and operation of broadcasting. The U. S. Occupation Army confiscated the broadcasting station right after the Occupation. And broadcasting, for its propaganda value, was directly operated by the U. S. Military Government agency from the beginning of the Occupation. Whereas the technical and business sides were administered by Korean Broadcasting Corpo?ation, the programming was controlled by the U. S. Military Govern?ent agency on April 1, 1946. In fact, the broadcasting station became a government department since then. In other words, the broadcasting system during the period of U. S. Occupation was not only state-owned, but also state-operated. The basic structure of the broadcasting system in Korea had been formed under the rule of the U. S. Military Government. The broad?asting system of 1945~1948 provided perhaps the most direct historical precedent for the state-operated broadcasting system after nation-building. The state-operated broadcasting system survived after nation-building and was in fact reinforced after the Korean War. The Seungman Rhee"s Government incorporated the broadcasting station into a department of the Ministry of Public Information. All expenditure being met from government sources in 1952, broad?asting was placed under a far stricter control by the government. Such a unitary state-operated broadcasting structure had been main?ained until 1953. Broadcasting in Korea is now supervised, if not controlled, by the government, usually through a special department. It is argued that the state control over broadcasting has not been removed from a different point of view. This implies that the features of the broad?asting system should be examined historically and concretely.


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