'일차규정자'의 결정력과 미디어 경제의 상관관계에 관한 연구 - 《조선일보》와 《한겨레신문》에 대한 내용분석을 중심으로
Primary Definers, Economic Basis, and Political Agenda - A Case Study
The culturalist approaches of mass media overemphasize upon autonomy of superstructural sector, and offer explanation at the ideo?ogical and political level. Stuart Hall expresses a classic version of this theory. From the perspective of historical materialism he recog?izes a decisive relationship between the economy and the media sec?or, but at the same time accept Althusserian and Gramscian ap?roaches, and refuses this decisive relationship paying exclusively attention on political and ideological level. The purpose of this article is to criticise his culturalist approach by criticism of "primary definers thesis" articulated within his culturalism. The primary definers thesis says that the routinized activity of news production is heavily depen?ent on and directed towards those official sources such as govern?ental institutions, police, courts etc. The news media thus tend to reproduce symbolically the existing structure of power in society"s institutional order. This thesis ignores the primacy of the economic mechanism of news media in the production process contrasting the culturalists" theoretical predisposition. Many scholars have criticised this fault, but most of studies have been conducted only at a the?retical level. So this article tries to prove the culturalist" fault at an empirical level. The author select two newspapers which have differ?nt ownership and reproduction basis (the Chosun Ilbo: pro-govern?ent ownership and readership base, the Hankyureh Shinmun: anti?overnment ownership and readership base) and analyze whether the government built agendas lead to effects of changing priority in each paper in a situation where there are news that allows the government to be driven to the wall. The results show that the Chosun IIbo re?roduced the agendas and interpretative frameworks and definitions generated by the government changing priority of agendas, while the government trial was ineffective in the Hankyoreh Shinmun in general terms. The origin of this difference had come from their different economic basis and following different editorial policies. The state institutions can primarily build new agendas and there would be many political factors which have effects upon news production. So the author does not deny the influence of the superstructural activities. However they can never be the primary factors in the news produc?ion. This superstructural activity can be blocked and reinterpreted by the economy of each newspaper since the economic basis is primary.
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