영상 다큐멘터리 역사재현의 현실성과 표현성 - 한국, 미국, 프랑스, 일본 텔레비전의 20세기 특집기획 다큐멘터리 비교분석
Representing the Twentieth Century in Television Documentaries - The Comparative Analysis of Korea, the United States, France, and Japan
The purpose of this study is to explore the representational conventions of television history documentaries in different countries. Since television history documentary performs a ritual function to integrate the divided individual experience into the collective one and to form social consensus on national identity, it is very important to examine the ways in which documentaries construct their own nations" history. This study attempts to try to find how narrative strategies and representational devices differ by countries. This study especially concerns the role of "mythological narrative" of television documentaries" which resassures the existing social values and orderings. This study examines television documentaries dealing with the nation"s history of the twentieth century in four countries-Korea, the United States, France, and Japan-broadcast since 1995. By employing the quantitative and qualitative methods, this study closely analyzes formal elements, narratives, representational codes of the selected one episode. The analysis distinguishes the "realistic" and "expressionistic" representational conventions. The realist convention means the representational device emphasizing the correspondence between authentic images and real, concrete events. On the other hand, the expressionist convention, along with the use of asynchronous audio track and distortion of time and space, emphasizes the artificially created symbolic world. The findings illustrate the different narratives and representational conventions employed by four countries" documentaries. Each documentary defines the nation"s 20th century within the different narrative framework, upholding certain social values such as "democratization", "frontierism", "internationalization" and "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity". This narratives are supported by the representational codes and conventions. In sum, each documentary constructs the past privileging a mainstream vesion of national identity. Despite differences in their narratives, it is noticeable there is a tendency towards a more symbolic, expressionistic convention of history representation. The results of the study are discussed in relation to the cultural, political impact of the "mythic" version of history and the "expressionistic" representation of history. The mythic mode of representation serves specific political needs for social control. The prevalent use of expressionistic devices in television documentary also has an ideological implication. History may become images and spectacles, that are divorce from real life and their real needs. It suggests a need for more comprehensive research on visual representation of history and the political impact of cultural popular memories.
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