유길준의 개화운동과 근대신문 창간에 미친 영향
Civilization Movements of Yu, Kil-Jun and His Influence on the Birth of the Korean Modern Newspapers
Yu, Kil-Jun was a new intellectual and initiated civilization and social reform movements at the end of the Chosun (朝鮮) Dynasty. Especially, he paid a significant contribution to the birth of the Korean modern newspapers. In spite of his contribution, researches dealing with the history of Korean mass media have not paid much attention to civilization movements of Yu, Kil-Jun and his influence on the Korean modern newspapers. This study attempts to reveal the social reform movements and the historical and intel1ectual context of Yu, Kil-Jun"s thoughts, to investigate his recognition of the newspaper through his written works, and to discuss his influence on the birth of the Hansungsunbo(《漢城旬報》), the first modern newspaper in Korea, and the Independent (《독립신문》), the first civil newspaper in Korea. Yu, Kil-Jun was absorbed in the study for the civil service examination (科學) until being 19 years old (1874), when he gave up the examination and began to care about the civilization thoughts. He went to Japan and America in 1881 to learn Western thoughts, culture, and institutions, and got the instruction of Hukujawa Yukichi (福澤諭吉) and Edward S. Moss, the civilization thinkers in Japan and America. Coming back to Chosun, he began to lead the progressive civilization movements for the reform of political and social system and enlightenment of the people as a civilization activist both within and out of the government. He wrote and published a lot of works including the Suyukyunmun (《西遊見聞》) written in Korean and Chinese to enlighten the people, and carried out the progressive reform movements. Yu, Kil-Jun especially contributed to the birth of the Korean modern newspapers. When he was studying in Japan, he visited Japanese newspaper companies and wrote on the importance and influence of the modern newspaper. He fully understood the situation of newspaper publication and the contents of them in the civilized nations, the necessity of the publication, the role of pressmen, the system and the contents of newspaper, and the prospect of them. He believed that being strong Chosun Dynasty depended on the Civilization of the people, which was deeply related to the publication of newspapers. During working as a public official of Chosun Dynasty, he wrote a variety of papers, the basic principles of the newspaper publication, the first publication address, and the interpretation works of the newspapers. These works provided with the theoretical and practical foundation of the publication of the Hansungsunbo, the first modern newspaper in Korea, and he played a leading role in the process of publication of the Independent, the first civil newspaper in Korea. Yu, Kil- Jun didn"t directly participate in the publication of this two newspapers because of the change of political environments. But he deeply understood the newspaper and provided with the philosophical and practical foundation of the publication of the modern newspaper as a civilization thinker and activist in the turning point at the end of Chosun Dynasty. His works allow us to deepen our understanding of historical context of the modern newspaper publication in Korea, and also provides with valuable insights to searching for the appropriate direction of mass media in the new civilization historical turning point of the 21st century.
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