Professional Standards in Korean Public Relations : A Co-orientation Approach between Korean Government and Corporate Practitioners
본 연구는 현재 한국 홍보업무의 전문성 정도를 살펴보았으며, 상호지향성 모델의 개념인 객관적 일치도(agreement)와 정확도(accuracy)를 적용하여 정부 홍보 실무자와 기업 홍보 실무자들이 생각하는 전문성 기준을 비교 분석하였다. 연구결과 현재 한국 홍보 실무자들은 지속적인 전문성 교육과 훈련, 그리고 급료 문제의 명확한 기준 등이 필요한 것으로 평가하였다, 또한 퍼블리시티와 공공 정보업무 실무자들이 설득/협상 등의 업무 종사자보다 현재 전문성을 높이 평가하였으며, 경력이 적은 실무자들은 윤리성 수준을 높이 평가한 반면, 연구조사 능력의 전문성을 낮게 평가하였다. 기업 홍보 실무가들은 조직 내 홍보업무와 부서의 중요성을 더 확장되길 기대하고 있었던 반면, 정부 실무가들은 사회조사 연구방법에 대한 이해력을 높이기를 기대하고 있었다. 한편, 기업 홍보 실무자와 정부 홍보 실무자 모두 동료들이 스스로에 비해 전문성 교육의 필요성을 느끼지 않을 것이라고 평가하였으며, 정부 홍보 실무자들이 기업 홍보업무를 긍정적으로 평가하고 있는 반면, 기업 홍보 실무인들은 정부 홍보업무를 부정적으로 평가하고 있었다.
Building on an extensive, longitudinal program of professional standards research in the U. S., this first look at professional standards in Korean public relations practice tracks fairly closely to standards in the United States. However, it appears less aligned with the American theory of excellence in public relations and is more skills and publicity oriented. Looking into details, Korean practitioners tended to view the location of public relations on the organizational chart, writing/editing skills, the inclusion of public relations in the "top decision team", and budgeting skills as enjoying well-established performance standards. Relatively positive response was also given for research strategies for campaign planning, for technical skills in graphics and production, and for public relations roles such as publicity, public information, liaisons, etc. Continuing education/training, licensing and salaries for technicians, managers and executives were viewed as most lacking in a performance standard of professionalism. To determine if any dimensions of professionalism in public relations could be identified, responses to the 24 items measuring uniformity of standards across the profession were subjected to factor analysis. Among the 24 variables, the first factor, comprising five variables describing salaries and equity in opportunity, accounted for 41.8 percent of the variance. Variables describing skills and managing through goals and objectives explained the second factor while education/training and accreditation/licensing described the third. Factor four consisted of two variables describing research strategies: factor five, with two variables describing ethical guidelines. Variables in factor six described public relations" role in the organization. The six dimensions of professionalism derived from factor analysis were treated as dependent variables in one-way ANOVA computations employing selected demographic variables as factors. In factor one describing the existence of salaries and equity in opportunity and the research strategies, practitioners with fewer than two years of experience rated standards for salary and equity lower than did those with over two years of experience. For the ethical guidelines, however, practitioners with fewer than two years of experience rated the existence of standards for ethical guidelines higher than did those with more than two years of experience. Regarding the extent that a professional standard exists for skills and managing through goals and objectives and the extent of standards for ethical guidelines, practitioners who worked in publicity/public information rated standards for skills higher than did those who worked in persuasion/compliance or negotiation/adaptation. This study also examined the extent of discrepancy regarding professional standards between government and corporate practitioners in public relations. Using a co-orientation approach in a national survey of randomly selected public relations professionals in Korea, it also measured practitioners" own attitudes as well as responses to questions about the attitudes of their peers concerning professional standards. The result of this study shows that corporate practitioners want to work as a part of a decision-making team in their organizations. Government practitioners request for the training of social scientific research skills, while corporate practitioners feel the need for an effective instructional guideline and evaluation research in their organizations. Not only government practitioners but also corporate practitioners underestimated their peer"s opinions about the professional standards in public relations. While government practitioners overestimated corporate practitioners" opinion, corporate practitioners underestimated government practitioners" thought about professional standards.
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