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한국 대기업의 업종별 위기관리에 관한 연구
A Study on Crisis Management according to the Types of Business

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    본 연구는 한국의 대기업을 크게 제조업, 금융ㆍ보험업, 유통ㆍ서비스업의 3가지 업종으로 분류하고, 첫째, 각 업종별로 경험했던 위기유형 및 빈도는 어떠한 차이를 나타내는지, 둘째, 업종별 각 위기유형에 따른 위기대비 정도는 어떠한 차이를 나타내는지, 셋째 업종에 따라 각 위기관리 단계별 위기대비 정도는 어떠한 차이를 나타내는지를 분석하였다. 연구범위는 1997년 7월부터 2000년 7월까지의 IMF 관리체제에 있던 3년간으로 한정하였다. 본 연구는 한국 대기업의 위기관리 실태를 분석하여 기업들이 효율적인 위기관리 프로그램을 만드는 데 토대를 마련코자 한국의 대기업을 대표할 수 있는 100대 기업의 책임자들을 대상(421명)으로 실증 분석한 선구적 연구이며 학문적으로는 앞으로 진행될 후속 연구들의 밑거름으로 활용될 수 있을 것이고, 기업이나 위기관리 컨설팅을 하는 PR업계에는 실제 업무에 활용이 가능할 것으로 기대한다.


    In today"s world, it is no longer a question of whether a major crisis will strike any organization. It"s only a matter of when, which type and how. The study objectives are (1) to measure the difference of crisis types having been experienced (2) to measure the difference of the crisis preparedness to crisis types (3) to measure the difference of the crisis preparedness to each crisis phase according to the types of business. The finance and insurance, the manufacturing, and distribution and service industries are defined as three categories of business. And the economical, the production and sales, the informational, and the psychopathology are used as four crisis types. The sample survey of this research had been done to the managers of top 100 revenue organizations listed in 1999 annual report by the Federation of Korean Industries. They worked for the core departments such as the Public Relations, the Management Planning and the Marketing Advertising more than five years. Research period is also defined as recent three years starting from the middle of 1997. It almost accords with IMF period. Total samples was originally five hundreds resulting from five samples per each organization, but four hundreds and twenty one samples had been totally collected. Questionnaires developed by Mitroff and Pearson of the University of Southern California"s Center for Crisis Management in 1993 were modified based upon the understanding and consideration to then-current situation of Korean industries. Mitroff and Pearson originally created those questionnaires in order to constitutes a framework for assessing an organization"s crisis strength and weakness, as well as a model for improving crisis management. The results to this study are summarized as follows. 1. In case of the manufacturing and the finance/insurance industries, the crisis types having been experienced are the economical, the informational, the production/sales and the psychopathology in regular sequence. In case of the distribution and service industry, they are the economical, the production/sales, the informational, and the psychopathology in regular sequence. 2. In case of the crisis preparedness to crisis types, there is meaningful difference according to types of business. In case of the economical, the informational and the psychopathology crisis type, the level of preparedness is the finance/insurance, the manufacturing and the distribution/service in regular sequence. In case of production/sales crisis type, the sequence is the manufacturing, the finance/insurance and the distribution/ service. The results show that the crisis preparedness of the finance/ insurance industry is higher than any other industries and the preparedness of the distribution/service is lowest. 3. The preparedness to each crisis phase is the finance/insurance, the manufacturing and the distribution/service in regular sequence. The crisis management is complex in nature and the studies in Korea is in the early stage. So that this study can be used as the basis for the future research of the crisis management. And the study results can also be used to build the crisis management program for the industries by the crises management consulting and public relations firms.


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