元代의 漢文實錄과 蒙文實錄 - 『元史』 「本紀」의 中國中心的 一面性의 解明을 위하여
Chinese Shilu(實錄) and Mongolian Shilu in the Yuan Period: Chinese Perspective Reflected in the Benji (本紀) of Yuanshi(元史)
It is astonishing to find in the Benji (Basic Annals) of Yuanshi very few remarks on the situation in Mongolia and the northeastern frontiers. For example, it is very difficult to follow the events surrounding the confrontaion between the armies of Qubilai Qa'an and Qaidu. This prompted our investigation about the nature and the source of the Shilu (Veritable Records) which became the basis of the Benji. What follows are some of the major points revealed by our research. (1) The compilation of Shilu in the Yuan period was started at first by the memorial of Wang E (王鄂) in 1261, and just before January of 1287 the Taizu leizhao shilu (The Veritable Records of Chinggis Khan and Succeeding Emperors) was completed. Based on this, a Mongolian translated version written in Uighur scripts was made and it was read before Qubilai in the year of 1288. He made some comments on it and they understook revisioning the Mongolian version. Finally, in 1296, the revised Mongolian Shilu of Taizhong (?edei), Xianzhong (M?gke) and Shizu (Qubilai) were presented to Tem? Qa'an. In this way, the Shilu (from Chinggis Khan up to Qubilai) in the Yuan period was made at first in Chinese and then translated into Mongolian, which was later considerably revised. (2) Although we cannot find the mention on the Mongolian Shilu after the compilation of Shizu Shilu, we find instead several remarks on tuobuchiyan. It is a transcription of a Mongolian word tobchiyan which means “abridgement, summary, total”. This seems to have been a term designating the Mongolian Shilu from Chinggis Khan down to Qubilai, as well as historical records written in Mongolian from the reign of Tem? Qa'an. (3) At present, there is not a single surviving shilu of the Yuan times whether in Chinese or in Mongolian, including the shilu of Chinggis Khan. However, if we compare three different historical materials – Shengwu Qinzhenglu, Dāstān-i Chingīz Khān in Jāmi` at ‐tavārīkh, and Taizu benji in Yuanshi, it is apparent that the first two are based on the revised Mongolian version of Taizu shilu, while the last one is based on the Chinese version. A detailed comparison of these two versions, we can discover the fact that the first two shows a 'Mongolian' point of view while the third reflects a 'Chinese' perspective. (4) The lack of records pertaining to the northeastern frontiers as mentioned above was exactly because all the Benji in Yuanshi were based on the Chinese Shilu. In the Yuan times the Chinese Shilu was compiled utilizing various sources. The most important ones are Shizhengji (時政記) and Qijuzhu (起居注), but these are not extensive records of Qa'an's daily utterance and activities but a collection of memorials and edicts written only in 'Chinese language', which were stored in Hanlin and National History Academy. Military reports were mostly written in Mongolian only and responded by Qa'an and high officials in Mongolian too. These materials were considered as secret and even the Censorate were generally not allowed to investigate into these. Moreover, only the matters which were associated with Chinese people were written in Chinese. If an incident took place among the Mongols themselves, there was no need to report it in Chinese. Thus, only the matters which involved Chinese or those between Chinese and non-Chinese were written in Chinese language. The peculiarity of chacellery system in the Yuan times prevented the matters related with military as well as non‐Chinese affairs from being reported in Chinese, and they were completely excluded when Chinese Shilu were compiled. The above findings made it sufficiently clear that the Benji in Yuanshi cannot properly represent the reality of the Yuan imperial rule. It is a reflection of only a partial picture viewed from Chinese side and perspective. The compilers of Yuanshi i..
대원 . 몽골제국 . 실록 . 톱치얀 . 『원사』 . 『성무친정록』 . 『집사』 . 大元 . 蒙古帝國 . 實錄 . 脫卜赤顔 . 『元史』 . 『聖武親征錄』 . 『集史』 . Dayuan . Mongol Empire . Shilu (Veritable Records) . Tobchiyan . Yuanshi . Shengwu Qinzhenglu . Jami at-tavarikh.
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