근세 쵸슈(長州)ㆍ사츠마(薩摩)의 朝鮮語通詞와 조선정보수집
Choshu"s and Satsuma"s Korean Interpreters and the Collection of Information
During the early 17th century Japan"s foreign relations contracted dramatically due to the so-called seclusion policy of the Tokugawa bakufu. The country, however, was far from closed. The bakufu maintained four windows to the outside world which included Nagasaki, Tsushima, Satsuma and Matsumae, through which foreign trade and diplomacy were conducted. These places also played an important role in collecting and distributing information related to Japan"s national security. Tsushima played a key role in collecting Korea-related and China-related information. The Japanese Outpost in Korea called Waegwan( 倭館) established and managed by Tsushima played a key role in Japan"s foreign relations with Korea. Korean officials and merchants visited the Waegwan, and they were to be mediated by Tsushima"s Korean interpreters in their dealings with the Japanese counterparts. The information collected by the Korean interpreters were reported to the bakufu through the Tsushima domain. The head of Waegwan sent the report to the domain. Then Tsushima sent the report to the karo at domain"s Edo residence. The karo or rusui of the domain submitted the report to the roju of the bakufu in the medium of its karo. Sometimes the report was distributed to other high-ranking bakufu officials such as ometsuke in order to strengthen its position in Korea-Japan relations. Some bakufu officials such as kanjo bugyo asked Tsushima officials to report the information to them without the permission of the roju. They responded to this kind of request only if they thought it was beneficial to the domain. When officials at Tsushima"s Edo residence submit information to the bakufu officials, they paid a special attention to the fact that information unfavorable for Tsushima"s special position in Korea-Japan relations should not be included. It was not unusual that Tsushima officials doctored or altered the information before it submitted the report to the bakufu. The information related to Korea or China collected and reported by the Tsushima domain seemed to be distributed to other places. Some information could be leaked out in Edo and were delivered to local areas. It is possible that in some cases information could be delivered directly from Tsushima to other domains. Matsubara, former Korean interpreter, was invited to the Choshu domain, where he answered questions asked by domain officials. Questions and answers were included in Chosenmonogatari (朝鮮物語 ). Hyomintaiwa (漂民對話 ) which was used as a Korean language textbook at Naeshirogawa( 苗代川) of the Satsuma domain also showed that information on Korea was delivered all the way to the Satsuma domain in southern Kyushu. This clealy shows that information on Korea or China collected by the Tsushima domain could be distributed widely in spite of bakufu"s efforts to regulate the distribution of information on outside world. When the debate over Japan"s conquest of Korea stimulated Japanese interest in Korea in the early Meiji period, many publications on Korea appeared and many of them were based on information collected by Tsushima"s Korean interpreters. It can be said that the Japanese attitude toward Korea in the early Meiji period was influenced by the information collected by Korean interpreters in the early modern period.
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