後漢 大喪儀禮에서의 死者의 의복과 '游官衣' 의식
A Study on the clothes of the departed souls(魂衣) at funeral rites of the emperor in the Later Han Dynasty
This study inquires into the funeral rites of the emperor(大喪儀禮) and its cultural ideas in the Later Han Dynasty, focused on the custom of keeping the departed soul on his own clothes(魂衣). Since it had been originated from Xizhou era, the custom of keeping the departed soul on his own clothes were part of the ancient Confucian funeral ceremony. During the Han period some officials reinvented it into what is called youguanyi(遊冠衣), which was inherited by the Later Han in different way. The clothes of the departed souls was the ones of the deceased that he had put on in his lifetime. According to ancient Chinese idea the departed soul of the deceased was believed to lean on or stay in his own clothes that remained his own body odor. Living descendants wished the souls of deceased parents not to go far away and thought out the means of staying the souls near themselves, that is, displaying the clothes of the deceased so that the souls come down and lean on it. After the clothes" wagon(魂車) entered the burial ground with dead one and the body buried, the clothes" wagon started a tour to look around the palaces in which the diseased emperor had lived, that is youguanyi(遊冠衣), and then returned to keep to the memorial palace near his grave. Magnificent ceremonies were held to pay respect to the deceased at the royal tomb on the morning of January and one day of August every year. The local officials made an oral report to the soul of the deceased on the prices and sufferings of their people in each districts as if to the living. In the Later han, people believed that the soul of the deceased lived in his grave, this was why the memorial service before the grave(墓祭) was prevailing particularly at that time. They constructed a memorial building provided with things necessary for daily life so that the soul rest comfortably and enjoy himself. Behind all this practices was the fear of the alienation and isolation after death that the living themselves would experience someday. In general, traditional Confucianism draws a clear line between this world and the next, which implies the memorial service before the grave should not held. After the soul clothes of the deceased had returned home, the ancestral tablet was made and kept in ancestral temple(宗廟) in which the ceremony of sacrifices were held regularly. The distinctive features of the funeral rites of the emperor in the Later Han Dynasty such as the memorial service before the grave or the tour of the clothes disappeared since that time.
혼의 . 용의 . 혼거 . 대상 . 유관의 . 魂衣 . 容衣 . 魂車 . 大喪 . 游冠衣 . clothes of the departed souls . carriage of the departed souls . funeral rites of the emperoremperor(大喪儀禮) . tour of the clothes of the departed souls youguanyi.
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