慧超 『往五天竺國傳』의 발견과 8대탑
The Discovery of Hyecho"s Memoir 'Wang-ocheonchukguk-jeon' and the Eight Great Stupas
In this article, I attempted to investigate two issues in relation to Hyecho"s Memoir which is a travelogue written by a Silla monk Hyecho. The first issue I intended to examine is how Paul Pelliot determined that this text was indeed the legitimate Hyecho"s Memoir. This issue is important to understand, because Pelliot discovered only a handwritten copy, and the section containing the title of the text and the identity of the author was lost. Particularly, in relation to the discovery of Hyecho"s Memoir, I considered the circulation of Huilin"s Yitqiejing yinyi to be very important, because it is the only Buddhist text that mentions Hyecho" Memoir. And second themes I intended to deal with in this paper is the Eight Great Stupas. As the ultimate objective of his pilgrimage to India was to pay respect to the Eight Great Stupas, so he documented the names and locations of the Eight Great Stupas, composed of 4 sacred stupas and 4 other great stupas. It was ascertained that Hyecho"s Memoir is the oldest extant text indicating the identities and locations of those eight great stupas. I utilized written texts and archaeological survey reports to shed light on those stupas. By accomplishing this task, I hoped to answer the following two questions: how East Asian pilgrims perceived Indian Buddhism in the early 8th century, and how such Indian Buddhism was understood and consumed throughout the East Asian Buddhist community. The Eight Great Stupas Hyecho referred to were not the so-called Eight Original Stupas, each containing 1/8th of Buddha"s sarīra. Instead, they were the stupas or temples that Aśoka erected at Eight Sacred Buddhist Places throughout India. Aśoka also erected stone pillars around the stupas he created, and engraved inscriptions upon them. Consequently, the Eight Great Stupas came to symbolize the Eight Sacred places, and the Aśokan pillars came to serve as markers of those Eight Great Stupas. The pilgrims were able to identify the eight great stupas with those pillars, and by paying respect to the great stupas, they found themselves inspired by the greatness of Sakyamuni, and had a deep spiritual experience.
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