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1930年代 上海 勞動者社會와 同鄕ㆍ同業網 - 上海 國民黨政權의 勞動政策과 관련하여
The Dynamics of Traditional Social Networks in Shanghai Labor Society, 1927-1937 - Related to Labor Control Policy of Shanghai Municipal Authority -

田寅甲  
  • 초록

    The institutionalization of labor movement in the process of "state-building" in China in the 1930s had two-fold characteristics. First, Guomindang government intended to achieve the strong stability of the society by controlling the labor movement. On the other hand, however, the government had been burdened by the responsibility of protecting labor class much more. These two characteristics in fact contributed to the modernization of labor problems. The first characteristic brought forth the "principled", "organized by the party" and "tamed" labor class possible by enforcing the repressive regulations on labor movement and activities of labor unions. The second characteristic contributed to the improvement of labor problems, by forcing the party to establish several laws on labor welfare, labor contract, labor condition and the education for labor class. However we can not conclude that those efforts resulted in sufficient improvement of labor problems. The reasons of this limitation can be summarized as followings: firstly, the Guomindang bureau in Shanghai and Bureau of Social Affairs of Shanghai city government were not cooperative and consistent in the execution of labor policies; secondly, the Guomingdang government was not prepared enough with administrative, financial and executive abilities for getting the reformation of labor issues. Beside of the factors which limited the institutionalization of labor issues mentioned above, there was a historical factor which limited the development of labor movement. The daily life of labor in Shanghai in the 1930s was almost the same with that in the 1920s and 1910s, even though some of the life of labor had been compelled to change. Unchanged structure of labor market and increasing instability of labor market owing to the recession at that time helped the tendency towards the traditional networks such as "native place" -based network or guild network continue. Even the discrimination owing to the different ways of living and languages depending on the locations became more evident than in the 1920s. The labor unions could not overcome these limitations either. Under these circumstances, many kinds of spontaneous organizations, bangkou(帮口) and bangkou-like labor society such as Guandihui(關帝會), arose to get the high possibility of survival with the collective power of those "native place-based" labor organizations. This means that the core self-protecting mechanisms for labor class themselves were still the traditional labor networks. In conclusion, even though the Guomingdang government tried to modernize the system of social control by the institutionalization of labor issues rather than the convention, she had no choice but compromise with the traditional factors. Therefore in the 1930s in Shanghai the labor society had two aspects - modem and tradition - at that same time.


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