A Study on the Process of Policy Making in Han period
The process of policy making has three steps; draft,consideration, and legislation. There were not any particular branch that is taking care of each step among the three steps in Han period. But it is admitted that policy were build following those steps in general. However the process was led not by the task-branch or bureau but the bureaucracy. The role of bureaucracy was essential to the process of policy making in Han period. They drafted laws and rules, and scrutinized them. Their concerns and activities covers almost fields of state affairs ; watering, politics and law, economics, recruitment and personnel, defense, diplomacy, emperor"s house and throne, sacrifice to the shrine of royal ancestors. mausoleum, way of ceremony and drill, academy and philosophy. etc. The rate of conference by the bureaucracy about the issue which was produced amounted to 43.9% in Former Han, and it reduced to 27.2% in Later Han. It shows that there was periodical change in the process of policy making in Han period. Composition of members attended in group and committee considering the policies followed changes of the time. However the change of the two fields is converging into one common bureau, that was a small number of bureau including Hwang ti"(皇帝)s secretary bureau. It is supposed that the bureaucrats and members attending in the process of consideration could be the one who constitutes the member of consideration bureau in Han period. The minimization of consideration bureau resulted from not only the reshuffling in order to make Hwang ti"(皇帝) rule easier, but also development of bureaucratic system inevitably. As the time passes away, it needed that more expert and specialized bureaucrat can decide and handle policies as soon as possible in order to meet the time"s demands. That is the why consideration policy used to be centralized in a particular bureaucrat. In terms of bureaucracy, the division of function started to appear since the process of draft came to belong to 'Shang shu'(尙書) who only deals with it. Division of function relating to the process of policy making above has given influences to the development of bureaucratic systems. In early time of Han, the members of outer cabinet had taken exclusive charge of the process of consideration and legislation. No division of function happened. After the function of legislation was handed over to 'Shang shu' (尙書) in the middle of Former Han, the each function of draft and consideration separated into the outer cabinet members and committee of bureaucracy. That was the early time of dualism, the separation of consideration and legislation. At the end of Former Han, 'Shang shu'(尙書) settled down, and the function of legislation was institutionalized with the institutionalization of administration using public documents by 'Shang shu'(尙書) It is called to be the time of dualism fixed. From the result of the independency of 'Shang shu t"ai'(尙書臺) in the early time of Late Han, the function of legislation by 'Shang shu'(尙書) had been enforced, As 'Shang shu'(尙書) attended in the committee, however he was granted the function of legislation which had once been separated. From the middle of Later Han the function of consideration at the committee of bureaucracy by the outer cabinet members started to decrease as the rate of consideration by 'Shang shu'(尙書) enlarged. The more 'Chung shu'(中書) who was backed up by Hwang ti"s power attended in the committee, the more function of consideration at the committee decreased. This is the time of acculturation of dualism, that the function of draft and consideration became emerged into the 'Shang shu'(尙書) who takes charge of legislation. This trend reflects the stage of social development, which means that the politics and administration had been unified as the element of antiquity started..
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