幕末水戶藩에서 封書의 政治的 登場과 그 役割 - '討議政治'의 形成과 관련하여
Political Emergence and Role of Fusho(封書) in Mito Han(水戶藩) of the Late Tokugawa Period
It is often said that Meiji Revolution was provoked by the political emergence of middle and lower class of samurai. This proposition, however, doesn"t give us any explanation about what made their political debut realize. In early and middle age of Tokugawa era, the important political issues(政事) were controlled mostly by Hanshu(藩主) and upper samurai such like Karo(家老) and Roju(老中). For keeping their that like political right from being infringed by other members of Han, they set such rigid regulations as the prohibitions of ottso(越訴) and toto(徒黨). Then what made middle and lower samurai be able to break this taboos, publicize their political opinions and act politically against upper samurai and sometimes even their boss, Hanshu? This paper tried to give an answer about this question by observing and analyzing the political process of Mito Han from Tenpo(天保) to Ansei(安政) period(1830-1859). In my paper, I pointed out the crucial role of Fusho(封書) as the political weapon of Fujita faction(藤田派) who were the advocators of Koki-Mitogaku(後期水戶學). The most members of Fujita faction belonged to middle and lower class of samuai. Originally Fusho was expected to be delivered directly to Hanshu who should be the first reader of it. In this case, Fusho would be the efficient mean to reveal the scandal or abuse of power by the upper sarnural, especially Roju who was the top of the Han government. Fusho, however, was actually routined to be checked by Roju before Hanshu"s reading it and Roju could delete kinds of Fusho against him beforehand. Accordingly, Fusho had not political meaning until the Tokugawa Nariaki(德川齊昭) and Fujita facion"s emergence. Inaugurated as the 9th Mito Hanshu, Nariaki who stood against Monbatsuha(門閥派), upper samurai desired to connect with Fujita faction for coping with Monbatsuha. For it, he initially reformed the Fusho system. The recipient of Fusho was changed from Roju to Edo Tsuji(江戶通事) who was in charge of meditating documents or letters from and to Hanshu. This change meant Fusho was delivered directly to Hanshu and he must be the first reader of it. This also meant Roju and upper samurai were expelled from the route between Fusho writer and Hanshu. Using this reformed Fusho system, Fujita faction could assert their opinions on important political issues directly to Hanshu. Also on the base of it, they could organized their adherents and acted for pursuing their political power. Therefore we can say the emergence of middle and lower class of samurai at the late Tokugawa period was indebted partly to the political emergence of Fusho.
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