A Study on the Altan Oaran's Čaraǰa
This Is a survey on the so-called, Altan Qaran"s Čaraǰa, which is supposed to have been established in the late sixteenth century. Uncovered in 1973, the code invaluably supplements the regional and periodic gaps in the study of Mongol legal history. The code was situated between the Yeke ǰasar which is enacted in the thirteenth century and the Mongol Codes of seventeenth-eighteenth centuries. Unlike these codes in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries which were valid mostly in western and northern Mongolia, Altan Qaran"s Čaraǰa held good in the south. Keeping these two aspects in mind, this study examines the secondary literatures on the code, the date of the enactment and its historical background, the penalty system, and the significance of the code in the study of legal history. Methodologically, this study compares the Altan Qaran"s Čaraǰa with most other known traditional Mongol codes such as the Yeke ǰasar. the Laws written on the birch barks(the late sixteenth to the early seventeenth centuries), the Qalqa ǰirum(1709-1770), and the Yeke Čaraǰa(1640). From this, the author concludes that the Altan Qaran"s Čaraǰa was established In 1578 to cope with the impoverished life of the people at that time. For that reason, the penalty system of the code was not harsher than that of the other codes. This study makes the following three important contributions. First. studying the characteristics of the unnoticed customary law in southern Mongol, it provides the foundation for pursuing the customary laws of entire Mongol under a single framework. Second, filling the gap for the study of Mongol legal history since the thirteenth century, this study helps us examine the Mongol customary laws under more broad historical context. Examining clearly the background for the enactment of the Alton Qaran"s Čaraǰa, this study finally contributes to a better understanding for the political and social situation during Altan Qaran"s reign.
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